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Monday, 05 September 2011 14:01
Background Information:

In ancient India the persons with disabilities were given education in the communities in which they lived. Education was given in the mainstream schools alongside the non handicapped peers in a gurukulum setting. Individualised instructions were given on based on the individual child needs and age (Jeyachandran, 1968).

A few residential institutions were established by the members of the royalty at different locations as an act of dharma, a duty (Miles, 1994).

During the colonial period and after, special schools were established mostly in urban areas and were expensive. Their coverage was only 2% of the population in need (Rangasayee, 1995). In the post independence years India had around 100 special schools for the persons with disabilities. The special schools were run by the government as well as non government organizations. These special schools were inadequate considering the mammoth population in need of special education.

Policies, Education, Plans and Programmes of Government of India:

The policies of the Govt., opened up avenues for integrated education, now referred to as inclusive education, to provide education to every child in need..

  • The Kothari Commission,1964;
  • The National Policy on Education,1968;
  • Integrated Education for the Disabled Children -IEDC,1974;
  • the National Policy on Education-NPE,1986.)
  • Continuous reorientation of pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes by the ministry of education.
  • Children with mild and moderate retardation to be placed in regular schools
  • Children with severe and profound disabilities to be placed in special schools
  • Residential facilities were also provided wherever needed in every district.
  • Project for the Integration of the Disabled (PIED), 1986, on the principle of Composite Area Approach (CAA) for special schools children being placed in mainstream schools.
  • The Programme of Action (POA), 1992, made provisions for training of general teachers, preparation of learning materials, education devices, support teacher and staff and setting of resource centres.
  • The revised IEDC scheme in 1992 to accommodate these provisions.

The Impact Study:

The impact of the IEDC scheme, in its 30 years of implementation, is now being taken up as a sponsored research study by the Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), for further revision and strengthening of the scheme.

Integrated Education:

It means, to form into a whole, to complete’ by providing the least restricted environment to children with disabilities so that they may grow and develop like the rest of the child population. It is an outcome of the deinstitutionalisation process which began as a felt need after independence.

Children with Disabilities:

Children, because of their disabilities are restricted in performing the activities that children otherwise do. Children as a result of impairments do not perform the activities in the manner or within the range performed by the peers.


A Study of Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC) Scheme: Assessment of Impact

Assessment of Impact:

Assessment in this study means “Evaluating the impact of the IEDC scheme

Evaluation of the IEDC Scheme - What it means?
  • It is the looking back on the objectives and asking whether the impact of the scheme had brought about the desired change as stated in the objectives.
  • Did the desired change happen within the time stipulated in the objective
  • If it had not, why?
  • If it had, then could it be further strengthened, sustained and enlarged for ongoing enrollment.

IEDC Scheme -Aims:

The IEDC scheme had the following three main broad aims.

  • To facilitate admission to as many children with disabilities as in need in the integrated set up so that the infrastructure and resources already in existence would be made available to these children too;
  • To adopt suitable and appropriate teaching methods for effective teaching learning experiences and thereby reduce the drop out rate.
  • To establish a linkage between the special schools and the integrated schools in the area for continuing education and functional education in the mainstream.

Type of Scheme

The IEDC Scheme is Government of India sponsored.

Scope of the Scheme

Provision of educational facilities to those children with disabilities who would benefit from mainstream education. It includes:

Pre-school training for the Children with Disabilities.

  • Counseling for the parents and training them in the care and management of the children at home.
    • an activity preparing the entry of the children into the mainstream school system -with special training for the children with hearing impairment, -mobility and orientation training for the visually handicapped, -daily living and communication skills training required by children with other disabilities.
  • continuation of education up to the senior secondary school level including vocational courses equivalent to the senior secondary level.


All children with disability will be eligible for entry into this scheme provided they have not been receiving any benefit from any other scholarship/assistance schemes relating to disability from the State/ Central Government, unless they undertake to forego the benefits.

Under this scheme 100 percent assistance will be provided to the States/Union Territories in its implementation on the basis of the criteria laid down and subject to professionally qualified staff being on the rolls.

While rehabilitation assistance will be made available to all children with disabilities, student benefits will be extended on the recommendation of the Assessment Team.

Implementing Agencies

The scheme shall be implemented through the:

  • State Governments
  • Union Territory Administrations
  • Autonomous organisations with credibility and experience in the field of education, rehabilitation of the persons with disabilities.

As this scheme is to be implemented in schools, the Education Department would be the implementing agency.

The State Governments may also take the assistance of voluntary organizations for this purpose, where ever feasible.

Procedure for Implementation
  • An administrative cell will be set up by the implementing organisation under an officer.
  • The officer, will be in the rank of at least the Deputy Director.
  • The officer will implement, monitor and evaluate the programme.
  • The officer will possess special qualifications to work in this field, otherwise he will be trained by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) or other designated organizations.
  • This cell will also identify the areas and the institutions for implementing the scheme.
Administrative Cell:

The Administrative Cell of the State Education Department will have a:

  • Deputy Director (in the scale of pay applicable in the State Government),
  • Coordinator ( Psychologist) in the scale applicable to a university lecturer,
  • Special Educator in the pay scale applicable to a university lecturer,
  • Stenographer and
  • Lower Division Clerk in the pay scales applicable in the State/UT.

Selected development blocks by the Administrative Cell will be provided with the required inputs for intensive and effective implementation of the Scheme.

The Administrative Cell – Its Responsibilities:

The Administrative machinery will process action for the assessment of the children with disabilities in all the blocks where the initial identification survey has been conducted. In those blocks where other agencies have already conducted the surveys the information so collected will be utilized with any needed augmentation

The responsibilities of the Administrative Cell are:

  • Identifying the blocks/districts for all the children with disabilities, where the scheme is yet to be implemented.
  • Selecting, providing orientation to all school teachers in the area preparing them to conduct surveys and identify the children with disabilities in the area and in the mainstream schools.

Note: An honororium of Rs 100 may be provided for conducting the survey.

Assistance of up to Rs.10,000 may be provided to the IEDC cell for the provision of printed survey forms used for identification of these children.

  • Supplementing these efforts by arranging for publicity through mass media.
  • Arranging equipments, learning materials, staff, needed in the education of the c with disabilities.
  • Monitoring and evaluation of the scheme at the State level will be carried out by the cell.
  • Ensuring that the information regarding the scheme is widely known.
The present study:

Evaluating the impact of IEDC scheme on the children with disabilities in their developmental progress.

Areas of Study:
  • Linkages of the special schools with mainstream schools.
  • Facilities made available for Children with Disabilities
  • Appointment of Special Teachers
  • Training of mainstream teachers
  • Training of staff in the scheme
  • Resource room support
  • Level of Integration of Children with Disabilities
  • Adequate and appropriate instructional materials
  • Pre-school Facilities
  • Monitoring and evaluation

The study of such a dimension and coverage has been taken up for the first time in India.

The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI), the Evaluating Body- Why?
  • RCI is a statutory and autonomous Body.
  • A large number of professionals in its Central Rehabilitation Register (CRR) available in all regions familiar with the culture and languages in each region.
  • Infrastructure and resources available for carrying out quality research work.


Last Updated on Wednesday, 07 December 2011 15:37

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