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Monday, 05 September 2011 13:58

This chapter describes the methodology used in the study, Study of the Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC) Scheme; Assessment of Impact.

It describes the:
  • Objectives of the Study
  • Geographical areas of study
  • Selected sample for the study
  • Development of tools
  • Training of the investigators
  • Data collection
  • Statistical Software used in the analysis of the data
Objectives of the Study:
To find out:
  • How successful the integrated schools have been in integrating the eligible children with disabilities from the local communities.
  • The retention strategies adopted by the integrated schools and whether they have been successful or unsuccessful.
  • The efficacy of linkage between the integrated schools and the special schools.
  • How much of the facilities for assessment and appropriate placement of the children with disabilities are available in the integrated schools.
  • The comparative performance of children with disabilities and the children without disabilities, particularly in the three learning areas: language, mathematics and environment studies.
  • How effective the existing support services are and how they can be strengthened;
  • How qualified the resource teachers are and how well the resource support is being provided.
  • The attitude of the teachers in the mainstream schools towards children with disabilities.
  • Whether the required optimum equipment and teacher learning material (TLM ) are available in the resource room.
  • How the school administration views the presence of children with disabilities in mainstream school.
  • The impact of the programme on the community and the attitude of its members towards the children with disabilities; and
  • The process of the implementation of the scheme with special reference to the role of the State Governments and the NGOs.
Geographical Area of Study:
The IEDC Impact Assessment Scheme was a study at a national level. The Zones of Study:
  1. South
  2. North
  3. East
  4. North-East
  5. West
  6. Central
From each zone three States/ Union Territories were chosen for the study.
The selections of the states were based on the information available with the Ministry on the performance rated as: successful, moderately successful and less successful in the implementation of the schemes.
The selected States/UTs were.
  1. South- Tamilnadu, Kerala, Karnataka
  2. North-Punjab, Haryana, Himachal
  3. East-Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal
  4. North-East- Assam, Nagaland, Tripura
  5. West – Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
  6. Central- Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh.

Workshop to determine the samples to be selected for the study.

Two days Resource persons: 13 Qualified professionals, with at least fifteen years experience in the field and the Principal Investigator.

Planning the road map for the study and
-Identifying Stakeholders -Deciding the sample Size -Planning the required Tools/Schedules -Formulating the methodology for the study.
The following stakeholders were identified as samples for the study.
  1. The Children with disabilities
  2. The non-disabled peer group;
  3. The parents of the children with disabilities
  4. The parents of the non-disabled peer-group;
  5. Principals/Headmasters of Integrated Schools;
  6. Principals/Headmasters of Special Schools;
  7. NGOs Implementing the IEDC Scheme;
  8. State Government Officials in Charge of Implementing the IEDC Scheme;
  9. Principals/Headmasters of Mainstream Schools;
  10. NGOs Working in the field of Disability in general (those who do not implement the IEDC Scheme); and
  11. The Panchayat/Community Leaders.
Sample selected for Study: 1458 Sample included for final study: 1240 States Covered: 18 Districts Covered: 89
Details of Samples – from each State:

Sl. N0. Details Nos.
1. Integrated School Principals/Heads 05
2. Special School Principals/Heads 05
3. Mainstream School Principals/Heads 05
4. Children with Disabilities Studying in Integrated Schools 15
5. Non-disabled Students Studying in Integrated Schools 10
6. Parents of Children with Disabilities 10
7. Parents of Children without Disabilities 10
8. Panchayat/Community Leaders 05
9. NGOs Implementing IEDC Scheme 05
10. NGOs Working in the Area of Disability in General 05
11. Educational Administrators (5 Block/District Level and 1 State Level) 06
12. Maximum Sample in a State 81

Details of Samples: National level Details of the Final Samples of the Study
Sl. No. Details Nos.
1. Integrated School Heads 90
2. Special School Heads 90
3. Mainstream School Heads 90
4. Children with Disabilities 270
5. Children without Disabilities 180
6. Parents of Children with Disabilities 180
7. Parents of Children without Disabilities 180
8. Community/Panchayat Leaders 90
9. NGOs Generally Working on Disability 90
10. Education Administrators 108
11. NGOs Receiving Grants for IEDC 90
12. Projected National Sample Size 1458

Sl. No. Details Nos.
1. Integrated School Heads 89
2. Special School Heads 56
3. Mainstream School Heads 85
4. Children with Disabilities 245
5. Children without Disabilities 172
6. Parents of Children with Disabilities 157
7. Parents of Children without Disabilities 169
8. Community/Panchayat Leaders 83
9. NGOs Generally Working on Disability 57
10. Education Administrators 96
11. NGOs Receiving Grants for IEDC 31
12. National Sample 1240

Sampling Technique:
• Purposive, random, stratified random sampling

Guided schedule (see annex) to evaluate the objectives of the scheme.
This tool is:
  • Used to evaluate the impact of the scheme.
  • Comprehensive and gives quantitative picture of the strengths and needs of the scheme.
  • Criterion – referenced evaluation important for future plan of action.
Some relevant data on the schedule:
Its objectives:
  • A quality tool of evaluation
  • A basis for action plans
  • Measures the different levels of the impact
  • Easy to use
  • Simple enough for understanding
  • Provides information for further action
  • Easy for interpretation
Field Testing of Items
The initial schedule was revised and reviewed extensively. The revision process included:
  • Data collection from the three pilot studies.
  • A review by a technical panel consisting of a 13 member interdisciplinary team of experts to establish the suitability of the schedule and also to make the required modifications where necessary.
The Pilot study was carried out at:
Delhi, Bhopal and Orissa by the Senior Programme Officer of the RCI and the consultants.
During the pilot study it was found that 10 schedules were appropriate in all respects barring a few changes in the language to simplify it.
It was also felt during pilot study to develop one more schedule for those NGOs, who are receiving grant under IEDC scheme. Accordingly, one more schedule was added into the tool. To differentiate the grant receiving NGO’s and non grant receiving NGO.

The schedules were designed in such a way that the:
  • Workability and suitability of the responses could be judged exactly through the items of the schedule itself.
  • More items of the same indicators were incorporated to cross check the appropriateness of the responses.
  • Of the 13 members 12 concurred in favor of the workability and suitability of the guided schedule.
Item Selection
Items were selected after an extensive review of a number of them suited to the study. An advisory committee of various professionals with sufficient experience in the field provided assistance.
The panel evaluated the scale and agreed that the:
  • 11 domains were sufficient for evaluation and action planning.
  • Items were worded appropriately and clearly.
  • Items measured the objective listed for the study.
Data Collection:
Selection of the Investigators:
  • Qualified and experienced rehabilitation personnel from recognized institutions working in the field
  • Registered with the RCI
  • 18 accredited organizations, one from each state – deputing 2 persons each. Totaling 36.(See Annex I)
Training for Investigators- Regional
The RCI core project staff, professionals experienced in staff training, management and in implementing programmes related to special education, conducted the workshop at two places, Bhopal and Delhi in two phases.
  • Representation: at Bhopal and Delhi
  • Investigators from 8 States from the States of Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Others from Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Punjab, Haryana, Orissa, Bihar, Assam, Nagaland, Tripura, and Delhi.
  • Venue: Regional Institute of Education (RIE), Bhopal, And Delhi
Course Content: Keeping in view the objectives and methodology of implementation of the IEDC Scheme.
• Training
-data collection methodology. -survey research and -interviewing using the structured schedules

Training Procedure:
The investigator was given: As per the requirement s envisaged by the RCI in it

  • Training in detailed methodology for data collection
  • Detailed contingency plan to meet difficulties in data collection by establishing direct contact with the RCI Headquarters and the state Headquarters.
  • Trying out the schedule under the supervision of the master trainers.
  • Co relating: Same investigator using the schedule after a three day gap
  • Co relating: Same variable evaluated by two different investigators. (Both correlations gave a 98% accuracy)
Data Collection in the field:
Qualified and experienced professionals trained at the workshops conducted the data collection following the guidelines (see annex V) provided by the Project team.
  • Structured schedule, finalized after the trials, used.
  • Experienced monitors, appointed one for each State ( See Annex I )
  • Random day-to-day visits to avoid the likely errors in observations.
Stakeholders’ Workshop
Zonal Stakeholders’ workshops held, the data collected was presented and valid suggestions enhancing the quality of the evaluation incorporated.
Four stakeholders’ workshop held at Udaipur, Bangalore, Kolkata and New Delhi to directly interact all type of stakeholders. (see annex II and IV)
Time Allotted for Data Collection: 45 days
The target population: 1458 Collected Sample: 1240

Each State collated the data quantitatively and qualitatively and presented the same to the head quarters.

The Statistical measures used for the study:
The project team has used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for data entry and analysis as per the recommendation of resource persons and core committee members associated with this project. The software is very useful in social science research. There are number of reasons behind the selection of this software.

SPSS offers the following facilities:
  • Efficiency in analyzing the survey data
  • Analyzing fast large data file.
  • Summarizing descriptive data
  • Identifying groups and similar variables
  • Counting and generating percentage by category
  • Identifying significant relationship between variables
  • Facilitating researchers to analyze the statistical data
  • Reliability with state-of –the-art security.
  • It can prepare graphs and tables quickly.
Core Committee Meetings:
Four meetings were held to review the data at the RCI headquarters under the chairmanship of the Principal Investigator.
Consultative Committee Meeting: A three member’s consultative committee was formed to write the report. The Project team took help from consultants from time to time.

The processed data is presented in the following chapter.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 29 November 2011 09:45

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