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Friday, 02 September 2011 15:34
  • Training Course for the teachers of the Deaf in use of ISS-TC for teaching language to the Deaf Children.
  • Certificate course of 2 months for Vocational instruction in integrated setup.
  • Certificate course for Multiple-purpose Rehabilitation workers Under NPRPD Scheme, Govt. of India.
  • Training Courses for Community Based Rehabilitation working for NPRPD Scheme.
  • Short termrefresher Programme in Rehabilitation Psychology.

Institutions desirous of running above short courses may contact,

Member Secretary, RCI

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Sign Language Interpreter Course


Lack of proper communication causes a lot of setback which are detrimental to any individual's well being. In order to assist the deaf individuals, Sign Language Interpreters are required in all walks of life especially to provide access to Social, Educational, Vocational and Economic opportunities, as well as to provide the means for safeguarding the interests of individuals in such fundamentals as health care/hazards and justice in the legal system.
(abbreviations : ISL = Indian Sign Language, SL = Sign Language)

For the purpose of preparing Interpreters, it is proposed to provide the training at two levels.

It is essential that the person should be a fluent user of Sign Language to be eligible for entry on a training course for Interpreters. Therefore at the first level of the training hearing persons who wish to become Interpreters will have to undergo training and assessment in use of Sign Language. The training course, thus, at the first level would be:

Training and assessment in use of Indian Sign Language (ISL Training Course) :

Training at the second level would be for the Interpreters, which will aim at training and assessment of Sign Language users as skilled Interpreters. (ISL Interpreters' Course).

Since this is the first time that such a course is being conducted in India, it will be treated as a Pilot project. The details of the first course i.e. Training and assessment in use of Indian Sign Language are provided below :


  1. Objective :
    1. raining Hearing person as ISl Users for the purpose of communicating effectively with deaf persons who are familiar with ISL
    2. Giving hearing persons adequate skills as ISL users so that they can in turn become tutors on ISL. Training Courses.
    3. Giving hearing persons adequate skills to become fluent users of ISL, so that they can, if they wish, pursue the training as ISL interpreters at least for their regions.
    4. Setup a Registry of ISL Interpreters.
  2. Grades in Training Course : The course will be provided at two grade levels. Grade-I and Grade-II.

    Grade-I course: This will be an introduction to the Indian Sign Language.

    Grade-II course: This will aim at expertise in use of ISI.

  3. Batches : Each batch will be of minimum 10 or maximum 15 persons.

  4. Duration :
    1. 15 days at a stretch (8 hours a day ) OR
    2. Weekend course (4 hours a day) for 30 weekends (i.e. 4 months).

  5. Course Content
    1. Grade-I :
      1. Signs for 500 basic functional vocabulary items.
      2. 100-150 conversational sentences including statements questions and instructions.
      3. Interacting with the deaf (5 sessions - each session of 2 hours).
      4. Assessment - mainly practicals.
    2. Grade-II :
      1. Signs for about 1500 words/ concepts.
      2. 300 conversational sentences.
      3. Ability to converse in general on several topics of interest and practical use e.g visit to hospital, friends place, school, bank, market, travel etc.

Teaching Language to the Deaf Children

  6. Top of Page
  1. Explanation of the Key terms used in this proposal

    TC : Total communication approach utilizes every form of input available to present the vocabulary, complete sentences and grammatical language concepts to hearing impaired children. It involves oral skills, signing finger spelling, auditory training, reading/writing, any form of communication which stimulates a child to develop conceptual thinking acquire language, and encourage him/her to express thoughts in the correct language order.

    The TC approach seems to be a more practical approach as it accepts the limitations imposed on the child's abilities by his handicap, and then sets out to provide a suitable and facile way out. As one can see, TC has all the elements of oralism. This sign per word system (contrived systematic signed/manually coded, language) thus adequately supports the fragments of speech that are heard or seen on lips by a deaf person.

    TC has seen a tremendous growth in acceptance among educators in U.K., France, U.S.A, China, Singapore. Australia, Scandinavian countries and Benauleux countries (Holland, France, Germany).
  2. SIGN LANGUAGE (SL) is the visual gestural language of the deaf community. It cannot be written or spoken. It is a language in its own right and have a linguistic structure very different from that of the spoken languages. There is no such thing as a universal sign language. Many of the signs used by the deaf differ from place to place and region to region. But it has been observed that two deaf persons from different regions can very well adapt to a level of communication which is uncommon in the hearing world.
  3. ISL-Indian Sign Language as is used by the deaf community in India.
  4. ISS-Indian Signing System: A system of signs/manual code for the vocabulary and grammatical items in Indian language. It is mandatory in the use of this system to use signs along with speech i.e. simultaneously. Many of the signs in ISS are an adaptation from ISL excluding the grammatical structure.

    In ISS, while the signs for the content words would remain the same across languages, there would be some difference in signing the function words/some grammatical elements of each Indian language. Work on six Indian languages has already been done by Dr. Prabha Ghate who is currently designated as the Project Director of the RCI Sign Language Project.
  5. ISS-TC :ISS as part of TC (Total Communication):
  6. IMA -Indian Manual Alphabet: There are some 50 speech sounds and the letters representing these in our Indo-Aryan and Dravidian Languages. The handshapes representing these sounds/letters are called finger spelling and the system is termed IMA.


Deaf children have very special educational needs. In many ways they require qualitatively different services from the hearing children, such as specific communication methods and teaching techniques, and a special curriculum for the purpose of development of concepts and a sound language foundation. Hearing children begin school with a well developed oral language system which is used as the medium for their instruction and which is the basis for development of reading and writing skills. As against this, for most deaf children, a primary overriding goal is to develop the basic language skills before they begin their formal academic education.

The premise on which the advocacy of the ISS-TC approach is based are as follows :

  1. Verbal language is necessary for education.
  2. Language development is dependent upon the complete input of the raw material of language to enable a child to abstract and internalize the system of the language spoken around him.
  3. All children including the straight forward deaf children have the brain potential to acquire language and speech skills. But this natural and normal process of development of language and speech does not take place in case of born deaf or a prelingually profoundly deaf child automatically without proper intervention.
  4. Learning-teaching an auditory based vocal system of language in the absence of the sense of hearing is an extremely difficult and complex process.
  5. Some deaf children who are fortunate to have the benefits of early intervention with very sophisticated electronic devices and education of good quality, may benefit from pure oral-aural approach; but what happens top others ? In most cases, these children leave schools with inadequate language skills even after years of special schooling and tutoring.
  6. It is felt that the ISS-TC will help immensely in making the input of language facile and complete and aid acquisition of a language system. The combined use of signs and spoken words adequately support the incomplete and ambiguous patterns of speech that are heard or seen on lips. (this has to be supported by an appropriate language program to suit the interests and maturity level of the child).
  7. The TC approach is considered to be a more humane and practical approach as it accepts the limitations imposed on the child's abilities by his handicap and then sets out to provide a suitable and facile way out.
  8. As the child begins to acquire the basics of language and some speech, more time then can be devoted to sharpening his tip-reading skills, listening skills, and literacy levels.

The specific form of TC approach that is proposed to be used for this training course will have ISS-Indian Signing System, as its major component and the teachers will be given training mainly in the use of ISS along with training in techniques in using the special curriculum for the development of basic language and speech skills.

The research findings indicate that great damage could be done through not introducing manual media to the child who proves eventually to have needed such intensive help. However, before definitive statements can be made in support of either TC or Oral approach for more carefully designed research must be carried out. For that it would be necessary to have an adequate number of deaf children who are tutored through ISS-TC approach for a sufficient period of time.


It goes without saying that the teachers who wish to use TC approach, should be thoroughly trained in using techniques of implementing the signing system and the special language curriculum. As per Nicolas Griffey, the use of manual communication in conjunction with speech is a highly skilled and most specialized form of education. And if teaching methodology using manual and oral mode of communication is to be used to its full potential, it will be essential that these be used by properly prepared teachers. Only then the teachers would be able to plan, develop and implement activities that will increase the quality and effectiveness of education for the deaf students who are generally considered academically at risk and who require more effectual educational support.


The main purpose of this course is to prepare teachers skilled in use of ISS-TC who may in turn develop model classes for demonstration and observation and be able to train more teachers in use of ISS-TC approach. When ISS-TC is used for a sufficiently long period with at least a few groups of deaf children only then one can think of carrying out a study on effectiveness of the approach in the Indian setting.

Outline of the Course
1. No. of Trainees Maximum 30 for a year in two batches preferably 2 from each school (who are interested)
2. Duration 3 Months staggered to be spread over 1 year (Please see 7.1).
3. Number of Batches in a year 2 Marathi and English separately.
4. Main Centre LTMG Hospital's School for the Deaf, Wadala, Mumbai.
5. Criteria for Admission Trained Teachers of the Deaf who are already in service or trained teachers who are working with the Deaf.
6. The Specific Tutorial Goals :
  1. To teach the use of ISS-TC as a special manual code and an efficient tool for development of language and speech in deaf children.
  2. To give intensive practice in using the Indian Signing System / (Manual communication).
  3. To help the teachers to acquire the skills of-
    1. Using ISS for representing verbal language to the child at a normal rate of speech.
    2. Development automaticity in using ISS alongwith speech.
    3. Teaching finger-spelling and signs to the child in an interesting and appropriate manner through different activities.
    4. Using age-appropriate methods and techniques of teaching and developing language in the deaf children.
    5. Using suitable curriculum for exposure (through ISS-TC) to the raw material of language so that the child can abstract and internalize the rules of grammar naturally and easily.
    6. Instilling habits in the deaf children of simultaneous use of signs and speech.
    7. Using appropriate techniques of introducing and developing reading and writing skills in children above 4 to 5 years of age.
    8. Preparing teaching aids suitable for the task.

Procedure for this Pilot Training Project

This course of 3 months will be completed in one academic year by conducting the sessions in the year at suitable times as given below under contact sessions. This will provide sufficient time for practice.
1. Contact Sessions :
(Training Session)
Commencement -May

May - 1 Month- Observation, Learning and Practice

June - 2 Weeks

Sept. - 1 Week- Demonstrations and Practice (Teacher student interactionand Assessment )

Jan - 1 Week

Tutorials - Once a Month
2. Practice Sessions : The trainee teachers are expected at all times to practice ISS-TC approach with deaf children throughout the academic year in their own classes. They should record their experiences and give a feed back (maintain a log-book)

3. Supervision and Guidance and Internal Assessment The Teachers will be supervised periodically throughout the year in their own class and assessed.

4. Syllabus Practicals :
  1. Introduction to the selected Signs and words (about 1,200) (nouns, verbs adverbs and some grammatical markers) which will be useful to the child for daily living skills and socialization and primary education.
  2. Familiarization with the special techniques of exposure to appropriate language and signs for the words and finger spelling.
  1. Explanation of key terms such as :
    • Language and the patterns of normal language development. Basic language competence.
    • Sign Language; finger spelling
    • Signing systems / manual code for spoken languages
    • Total communication
    • Modes of communication -oral-aural, simultaneous approach, sequential approach, ISS-TC
    • Methods of teaching
    • Techniques of teaching language
  2. Techniques of introducing and revising finger spelling and signs in a teaching situation.
  3. Modes of evaluation of the child's progress in use of ISS-TC
  4. 2 case studies of language growth
5 Final Assessment In April the trainee teacher will appear for the final test on the course.

The trainee teacher will be assessed for -
  • Practical use of ISS-TC in her own Class.
  • One written test of 3 hours using lectures and teaching experience as the base.

The assessment in practicals will involve the skills given below :

  1. Ease in use of finger-spelling and signs in ISS-TC taught throughout the year.
  2. Use of techniques of teaching language using signs.
  3. Ability to teach the children signs and language as will be evident from the progress of the children in use of ISS-TC.
  4. Ease in signing small simple sentences of the 3 main types statements questions, commands / requests; and synchronizing these with normal rate of speech.
  5. The performance of the children in her class in the use of Speech and Signs.

The Certificate will be issued by RCI, New Delhi

Examination - Marking System
Total 500 marks - minimum passing marks 60%, 1st class -70% and above.

1. Case studies 100 marks
2. Theory paper 100 marks
1. Log book 100 marks
2. Internal 100 marks
3. Final teaching 100 marks
4. Practical and viva 100 marks
Total No. 500 marks

Certificate Course of Two Months for Vocational Instructors in Integrated Set up


Besides other means of choosing a career, both the literate and illiterate Deaf also opt for Vocational Training wherever there are facilities, to become skilled workers.

The existing facilities for Vocational Training are meager compared to the very large adult deaf population which is about 5 million in the country.

One of the reasons for inadequate training facilities is the non-availability of trained teachers. Had such trained teachers been available the TRYSEM program could have helped rehabilitation of many deaf in rural areas. It is important of the deaf to undergo vocational training in an integrated environment to enhance their employability. Participation in regular ITIs and regular vocational centres provides them with opportunities to see for them-selves realistically and enables them to cope up on their own. The employers then will be able to recognise the skills of the deaf, otherwise the trainees who completed training have to become dependents on the special vocational Centres from where they were trained as they are used to protected environment. Many deaf people who have passed from these special centres, have feelings of inadequacy, insecurity and these compel them to avoid society.

Therefore a systematic vocational training programme has to be made for training the deaf in an integrated setup. The programme must have following features.

  1. Providing scope for self-reliance and self-sufficiency.
  2. Ensuring steady flow of skilled deaf workers (matching to the needs of employment market).
  3. Providing scope for widening employment opportunities.
  4. Reducing unemployment among Adult Deaf.

The essential requirements to make technical or vocational training programme. Successful is to make available trained teachers to communicate with the Deaf effectively. It is commonly observed that existing vocational technical instructors of the Deaf do not have proper concept about hearing impairment. Therefore there is a need to design a training course so that these instructors also be equally exposed to the educational, audio logical, sociological and emotional aspects at the adult stage of the Deaf. It is more challenging to a instructor to teach the deaf in the integrated setup as he or she is expected to possess interpretation skills.

Considering the present socioeconomic conditions of the hearing impaired, a short course for the instructors is essential which will go in depth in the practical aspects and give a guide line for various vocational courses so that the status of vocational educational is strengthened. Keeping in view the above, a short course is proposed with the following objectives.

2 Months (240 hours)

A. General
1. To be able to communicate with the Deaf.
2. To be able to develop teaching skills.
B. Specific
1. To understand concept of hearing impairment.
2. To develop empathy for the deaf.
3. To know communication options.
4. To be able to communicate in signs.
5. To know instructional methods.
6. To know teaching methods.
7. To organise the procedures for curriculum development.
8. To understand role of teachers in the integrated Centres.
9. To be able to provide career guidance.


Obviously the course will not be effective without the support of following basic equipment and materials.

1. IRC
(i) OHP, 35 mm slide-cum-film strip projector
2 Nos
(ii) Tape recorder
(iii) 16 mm projector
(iv) Cameras with zoom lenses (with dark room facility for developing)
(v) Portable, drilling, cutting, bench vices
2 sets
(vi) Duplicate machine 2
(vii) Xerox copier
(viii) Drawing instruments with drafting table
2 sets
(ix) Computers with printers (latest version)
(x) Ammonia printing machine
(xi) Typewriters
(xii) Epidiascope
(xiii) Furniture (with 2 work benches)
As required
(xiv) Materials - Videocassettes (Vocational/Trades)
As required
(xv) Tool kits, transformer, charts, files, strips etc and reference books
As required


Cadre Essential Qualifications
Senior Lecturer
  1. Degree in Engg. or Technology or equivalent in Mechanical or electrical or Electronics.
  2. Degree in Tech. Teacher Trg.
  3. % yrs. Experience in administration.
Lecturer I
  1. Diploma in appropriate branch of Engg. Technology, Mechanical or Electrical or Electronics or Civil.
  2. Diploma in Technical Teacher Training.
  3. 2 years teaching experience.
Lecturer II
  1. Degree in Audiology and Speech
  2. B.Ed. (H.I.)
  3. 2 years teaching experience.
Workshop Superintendent
  1. Diploma in Engg. or Technology or equivalent with Diploma or Certificate in Technical Teacher training.
  2. 2 years experience in a Workshop.
Audio Visual Technician Bachelor's degree in Science and three years experience in developing operating and maintaining Audio visual equipment and Software

Sign Language Interpreter
  1. Graduate in any discipline with RCI Recognised Sign Language Interpreter.

3. No of Participants;

4. Entry Qualification for the trainee instructors

  1. National Trade Certificate from an ITI. or
  2. Diploma in an appropriate branch if Engg. or
  3. An equivalent qualification in a vocation from any recognised institution.
5. Sponsorship Application sponsored by an institution with a guarantee of providing or continuance of employment will be given preference to admission.
6. Stipend The institution will pay stipend of Rs.____ to the selected candidates every month.
7. TA/DA Single second class to and fro charges will be paid only to the selected candidates after conforming admission.
8. Evaluation All the participants have to appear for a written and practical test after the completion of course for award of a certificate. A participant will be permitted to appear for the said test if he has put in an attendance of minimum 80%.


  1. To understand concept of hearing impairment ( 8 hours)
    1. Mechanism of Hearing.
    2. Factors Responsible for Hearing Loss.
    3. Definition of Hearing Impairment, Gradation etc.
    4. Impact of Hearing Loss.
    5. Audiological Aspects (Practicals)
    6. Hearing Aids (Practicals)
  2. To develop empathy for the deaf (4 hours)
    1. Historical, Educational, Psychological, Sociological, Emotional aspects.
    2. Developing Positive Attitude Towards Deaf.
    3. Provisions from PWD Act, With regard to Employment and Training.
  3. To Know Communication Options (2 hours)
    1. Aural-Oral Approach.
    2. Total Communication.
    3. Sign Language
    4. Finger Spellings
  4. To Communicate in Signs (130 hours practice sessions)
    1. Formation of Signs, Visual and Spatial Aspects of Signs and Sign Systems.
    2. Relations of Sign Language, Body Language and Gestures.
    3. Developing Sign Language Competence.
    4. Grammar and Structure of Sign Language.
    5. Skills Required for Interpretation from a Language to Sign Language.
    6. Ethics of Interpreting Signs to Speech Communication
    7. Developing Technical Signs.
    8. Factors Involved in the Process of Interpreting and the Interaction Participants.
  5. To know Instructional Methods (32 hours practice sessions)
    1. Instructural Resource Centre (IRC).
    2. Developing Teaching Aids.
    3. Programmed Instruction.
    4. Computer Aided Instruction.
    5. Multimedia Packages for Visual Communication.
    6. Developing Modules.
  6. To know Teaching Methods (28 hours practice sessions)
    1. Methods of Teaching ITI Subjects.
    2. Teaching Effectiveness.
    3. Developing Teaching Skills.
    4. Evaluation Techniques.
  7. To Organise the Procedures for Curriculum Development (16 hours practice sessions)
    1. Curriculum Strategies for Integrated Students.
    2. Elements of Curriculum.
    3. Implementation and Evaluation.
  8. Understand Role of Teachers in the Integrated Setup (8 hours practice sessions)
    1. Day to Day Planning of Student Activities.
    2. Building up Relations.
    3. Developing Interaction.
    4. Organising a classroom.
    5. Quality Management of Teaching and Allied Activities.
  9. To be Able to Guide for Employment (12 hours)
    1. Guidance and Counselling Needs (practical).
    2. Govt. Schemes and Statutory Provisions.
    3. Educational Facilities for the Deaf.
    4. Employment Opportunities.
    5. Project Preparation for a Self Employment (Practicals).

(Total Duration 240 Hours or 2 Months) (TOTAL DURATION 240 HOURS OR 2 MONTHS)
Certificate course for Multi-Purpose Rehabilitation Workers




The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India has launched the National Programme of Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities (NPRPD) to provide comprehensive services to the persons with disabilities in the rural areas through the State Governments. The services proposed to be provided under the Scheme cover all aspects of rehabilitation starting from prevention, early intervention (including provision for medical assistance, aids and appliances, education, non-vocational and vocational training), economic rehabilitation and integration in the society.

The Scheme will have the following systems of providing services:-

  1. Panchyat/grass-root level.
  2. Block level.
  3. District level.

At the block level where 2 MRW's will be placed for an average population of 1.84. lakhs. The MRW's are expected to provide services to the persons with disabilities and provide information to the community leaders, to persons with disabilities and their families to avail the services and facilities available for the disabled. The MRW's will be responsible for identifying the need of the disabled to arrange to fulfill them by involving Government and NGO. This course has been designed keeping inview of the object of block level MRW's training under NPRPD.

Concept of Disability:

Disability is physical or intellectual impairment that interface with the day to day activity expected of an individual or with the process of ordinary education or employment.

Concept of Rehabilitation:-

Rehabilitation is a continuum of services provided to an individual to overcome or at least compensate in part effects of this impairment. It is a multi-sectoral process requiring the collaboration agencies in the Government and Non-Government agencies in the area. The object of rehabilitation is to mainstream area. The object Rehabilitation is to mainstream a person with disability in his/her community.

Duration:- 3 months


Each batch should not be of less than 20 and more than 25 trainees.

Objectives of this Course:

  1. To inform them about the principles and practice of rehabilitation
  2. To appraise the trainees about the magnitude, various types and causes of disabilities
  3. To teach them the methods of identification of disability, its prevention, and early intervention
  4. To make the trainees understand the different types of needs of the people with disabilities
  5. To provide them orientation in the different aspects of management of disability
  6. To create awareness about the abilities and potentials of people with disabilities and their integration in the community (mainstreaming)
  7. To introduce sources of empowerment of the people with disabilities through educational / vocational training and other approaches
  8. To give information about the various concessions and facilities available through different schemes of Central/State Governments and how to avail them
  9. To impart knowledge about various resources available at Govt. and NGO levels for proper referral and development of liaison
  10. To share the information regarding team approach for holistic / comprehensive rehabilitation people with disabilities


Eligibility for Admission to the Course:

Person working under NPRPD Scheme : Ref. NPRPD Scheme of Govt. of India.

*A candidate selected shall be eligible for admission to the Certificate Course for Multi-Purpose Rehabilitation worker for Disabled (3 months) provided the candidate has passed a 8th standard examination of any State.

Duration of the Course:-

Certificate in Multi-purpose rehabilitation worker for disabled (3 months) shall be for a duration of three months with 75 working days providing for a maximum of 240 instructional hours in addition to 360 hours of practical work.

Scheme of Examination:

The following will be the Scheme of Examination:

  1. Weekly assignment
  2. Terminal evaluation in theory and practical
  3. Feed back Open discussion
  4. Project assignment

Passing Minimum:

The passing minimum marks shall be 40 percent in the weekly assignment and 40 percent in the final examination.

Course Content

  • Introduction to disability
  • Demographic and Epidemiological Patterns of Different Disabilities
  • Cause, Prevention, early intervention and rehabilitation in Disabilities
  • Survey Methods
  • Early Identification and Early Intervention
  • Introduction to Community Based Rehabilitation
  • Attitudes towards Disability - Problems and Solutions
  • Counseling
  • Education of Children with Disabilities
  • Psycho-social implications of disability
  • Multi-sectoral linkage and networking
  • Schemes for Concessions and Facilities to persons with disabilities
  • Principles and process of Economic Rehabilitation
  • Developing a barrier free environment for all persons with disabilities
  • Rehabilitation Aid/Appliances /Devices
  • Rights of the Persons with Disabilities
  • Mobilization of Community Resources
  • Special Focus on Women and multi-disabled in Rehabilitation
  • Need for Creating Public Awareness
  • Sports, Cultural, Leisure, Recreational and Creative activities
  • Field Visits
  • Practical Training
  • Supervised Field Work
  • Evaluation, Self Appraisal, and Feedback
S.No. ITEM Hrs.
1 Introduction to Disability
  1. Definition of Disabilities as per various sources including the PWD Act,1999.
  2. Explanation of various terms related to disability
  3. Disability Process
2 Demographic and Epidemiological Patterns of Different Disabilities
  1. Situation analysis
  2. Prevalence of Disabilities
  3. Rural Urban Distribution
3 Causes, Prevention, early intervention and rehabilitation in Disabilities
  1. Introduction to the basic structure and function of the human body
  2. Various causes of different disabilities
  3. Common preventive measures
  4. Early intervention strategies
  5. First aid therapy
  6. Rehabilitation definitions and medical, psychological, social, education-vocational aspects
4 Survey Methods
  1. Various survey methods
  2. Need and importance of door-to-door survey
  3. Procedure of conducting door-to-door survey
  4. Need Assessment
5 Early Identification and Early Intervention
  1. The trainees will be acquainted with early identification of various disabilities as per Disability Act.
6 Introduction to Community Based Rehabilitation
  1. The concept of CBR
  2. The existing scenario
  3. Situation analysis
  4. CBR stategies
  5. Need for promotion of CBR
  6. CBR program development
  7. Components of CBR
  8. Sustainability of CBR
  9. Monitoring and Evaluation in CBR
  10. Various patterns of CBR as practiced in India
7 Attitudes towards Disability- Problems and Solutions
  1. Attitudes of People With Disabilities
  2. Attitudes of Family members
  3. Introduction of Human Psychology
  4. Mechanism for Change of attitudes
  5. Attitudes of Community
  6. Highlighting the Abilities of the PWD
  7. Involvement of the PWD, family and community in rehabilitation
  8. Motivation
8 Counseling
  1. Role of field worker as a counselor
  2. Acceptance of disability
  3. Individual / Family counseling
  4. Raising acceptance
  5. Group counseling
  6. Counseling through demonstration and other methods
9 Education of Children with Disabilities
  1. Status of Education of Children with special needs
  2. Residential schools for the children with disability
  3. Functional education through NFE
  4. Integrated education
  5. Inclusive education
  6. District Primary Education Programme
  7. Educational Scholarship
  8. Alternative Educational Center
  9. Education-fundamental right
  10. Curricular and Co-curricular components for all round development of children with disabilities
  11. Scheme of Integrated Education of Persons with Disabilities
  12. Natural Open Scheme
  13. Provisions under the PWD Act, 1995
  14. Pre-integration skills
  15. Preparing system for integration
  16. Child-to- child learning
10 Psycho-social implications of disability
  1. Objective Effects of Disability
  2. Subjective Variables and Psychological impact of disability
  3. Introduction to Psychological Evaluation
  4. Social Aspects
11 Multi-sectoral linkage and networking
  1. Role of State Departments
  2. Role of local Administration
  3. Role of Self Government
  4. Role of Development organizations
  5. Role of Healthcare agencies
  6. Need for promoting networking
  7. Involvement of media, religious institutions, corporate sector etc. in networking
12 Schemes for Concessions and Facilities to person with disabilities Explain the procedure for extending various concessions and facilities to persons with disabilities.
  1. Reservations in jobs
  2. Disability Certificate
  3. National Identity Card
  4. Age relaxation for jobs / examinations
  5. Travel concessions
  6. State pension for the disabled
  7. Subsidy on loans
  8. Loans from NHFDC
  9. Scholarships in case of students
  10. Various educational and mobility aids / appliances
  11. Cash assistance
  12. Preference in housing schemes
  13. Coverage under poverty alleviation programs
  14. Pradhan Manrti Rojgar Yojna
  15. Coverage under rural development schemes
  16. Various other State Specific Schemes, programs etc.
13 Principles and process of Economic Rehabilitation
  1. Explanation of the various terms
  2. Importance of gainful occupation in the rural areas
  3. Significance of income generating activities
  4. Development of marketing skills
  5. Use of local resources
  6. Examples of local crafts and activities
  7. Ability contests in vocations for discovery of talents and upgradation
  8. Examples of successful cases of vocational rehabilitation
  9. Role of VRCs (Vocational Rehabilitation Centres)
14 Developing a barrier free environment for all persons with disabilities
  1. Need for adequate access
  2. Modifications at different levels and places
  3. Modification of toilets, kitchens, steps, railings etc.
  4. Public education regarding architectural barriers
  5. Access to public places for persons with disabilities
15 Rehabilitation Aids / Appliances / Devices
  1. Mobility
  2. Self-help
  3. Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
  4. Training in the use of devices
  5. Low vision
  6. Hearing -Aids
  7. Educational aids
  8. Vocational aids
  9. Use of indigenous materials
  10. Advanced technology devices
  11. Audiometer
  12. Psychological tests
  13. Total communication and sign language
  14. Braille equipments
  15. Vision stimulation Computer aided devices
  16. Special softwares
  17. Need for standardization of these Devices
16 Rights of the Persons with Disabilities
Brief introduction and aspects of implementation of :
  1. Standard Rules, UN
  2. Persons with Disability Act, 1995
  3. RCI, Act 1992 with amendments (2000)
  4. National Trust Act, 1999
  5. Convention of the Disabled
  6. UN-ESCAP Decade for the Disabled
  7. Salmanca Declaration
  8. Dakar Declaration
  9. Other significant Declarations etc.
  10. Clear Component
  11. Eligibility Entry
  12. Objectives
17 Mobilization of Community Resources
  1. Community Awareness
  2. Community Involvement
  3. Community mobilization and organization
  4. Explanation of the terms 'community resources'
  5. Listing of community resources
  6. Importance of utilizing community resources
  7. Introduction about various schemes of local administration
  8. Procedure of availing benefits under such schemes
  9. Roles of different field level functionaries in resource mobilization
18 Special Focus on Women and multi-disabled in Rehabilitation
  1. Problems of Girls and Women with disabilities
  2. Role of women in Rehabilitation
  3. Empowerment of women with disabilities
  4. Removal of gender disparity
  5. Self Help of Groups
  6. Problems of Elderly persons
  7. Services for Elderly
  8. Coverage of persons with multiple disabilities
  9. Home based rehabilitation
19 Need of Creating Public Awareness
  1. Level of public awareness at present
  2. Various methods of creating public awareness
  3. Impact assessment
20 Sport, Cultural, Leisure, Recreational and Creative Activities
  1. School, Local, Regional, National, and International Abilympics (abilities of skills)
  2. State, National, and International level sports for the disabled
  3. Adaptation / modification of Sports Equipments / Rules
  4. Art and Crafts Activities
  5. Horticulture Therapy
  6. Leisure and Recreational activities
  7. Special Events
  8. Play therapy
21 Field Visits
  1. Rehabilitation Centres
  2. Health care Agencies
  3. Training Centres
  4. Existing CBR Projects
  5. Schools with Inclusive, Integrated and Alternative Education
  6. Departments of Social Welfare
  7. Disability Development Organizations
  8. Cases of successful rehabilitation
22 Practical Training
  1. Use of Assistive devices
  2. Repair and maintenance of devices
  3. Orientation and Mobility
  4. Self Care Activities
  5. Introduction to Braille
  6. Low Vision devices
  7. Eudiometry
  8. Fitting of Aids and Appliances
  9. Cognitive and Functional Assessment
  10. Needs Assessment
  11. Rural crafts Activities
  12. Job Adaptations
  13. Early intervention
  14. Field Survey
23 Supervised Field Work
  1. Door-to-Door Survey
  2. Participatory Rural Appraisal in the community
  3. Use of checklist for survey
  4. Identification of Persons with Disabilities
  5. Assessment of needs of PWD
  6. Strategy and Implementation
  7. Provision of Services at a Central location
  8. Education concessions integration
  9. Awareness about Centres for Certification of Disability
  10. Completion of formalities for concessions
  11. Basics of Report writing Completion of Proforma Public Awareness campaigns
  12. Income generation activities
  13. Work adjustment problem
24 Evaluation, Self Appraisal, and Feedback
  1. Structured evaluation
  2. Weekly assignment
  3. Completion of Feedback
  4. Open Discussion
  5. Concluding Session
  6. Project assignment

Certificate to be awarded by the Centre.


Abraham, Christy; Thomas, Maya (1994): Community Based Rehabilitation in India - the Phase of Consolidation, ACTION AID Disability News, 5 (1), PP. 57-58.

Bachani, (Dr.) D.: and Limburg, (Dr.) H. (1996): National Programme for Control of Blindness -Course Material for Training District Programme Management , New Delhi: Ophthalmic Section, Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, P. 169

Bai, Radha K.; Koening, Claudia: Joicy, P. M.; Shanmugam, l.; Immanuel, Prabhakar S. (1996); All Colours Are There, Tiruchirapalli; Christoffeln Blindenmission, P. 373

Baine,D.(1988); Handicapped Children in Developing Countries, Assessment Curriculum and Instructor, University of Alberta, Alberta

Baquer, Ali; and Sharma, Anjali (1997); Disability: Challenge Vs Response. New Delhi: Concerned Action Now, P.418

Batt, U. (1963) The Physically Handicapped, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai

Chalker,Prue; and Wirz, Sheila (1999): The Relationship Between Inclusive Education and CBR, Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, 10 (2), PP. 68-70

Chapman, Elizabeth K.; and Stone, Juliet M. (1988): Visually Handicapped Child in Your Classroom (Special Needs in Ordinary Schools), London: Cassell Educational Ltd., P. 206

Helander, Einar; Mendis P.; Nelson G.; and Goerdt A. (1989): Training in the Community for People with Disabilities, Geneva : World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27- Switzerland

Helander, Einar (1993): Prejudice and Dignity - an Introduction to CBR, New York : Division of Public Affairs, United Nations Development Programme, One United Nations Plaza, N.Y. 10017, USA, P. 241

ILO, WHO and UNESCO (1994): Joint Position Paper on CBR for and on People with Disabilities, Geneva

Kumar , (Dr.) Raj; Limburg, (Dr.) H.: Dhamija , R: Manual for District Blindness Control Society, New Delhi: DANIDA Support Programme, P.30

Lysack, Catherine; Kaufert, Joseph (1996): Some Perspectives on the Disabled Consumer: Movement and Community Based Rehabilitation in Developing Countries ACTION AID Disability News, 7 (1), PP.5-9

Narashimhan M.C., Mukherjee A.K., (1986), Disability - a continued challenge, Delhi, Willey Easten.

Mani, M.N.G. (1991: Ingredients of IED, Yedakad: Ovis Publishers, P. 79.

Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs (1996): The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 (No. 1 of 1996), New Delhi : the Gazette of India , P. 24

Mukhopadhyay, Sudesh; and Mani, M.N.G. (2000): Year 2000 Assessment, Education for All, New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development and National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, P. 28

Murthy, S.P.; and Gopalan, Lyn (1992): Work Book on Community Based Rehabilitation Services, Bangalore : Karnataka Welfare Association for the Blind, P.135

National Sample Survey Organisation (1994): A Report on Disabled Persons, 47th Round, New Delhi : Department of Statistics, P. A-133

Narayan, J. and Kutty, A.T.T. (1989) Handbook for Trainers of the Mentally Retarded Persons, Pre-Primary Level, NIMH, Secunderabad.

O'Toole, John Brian (1991): Guide to Community-Based Rehabilitation Services, Paris: UNESCO, P.9

Pandey, R.S; and Advani, Lal (1995): Perspectives in Disability and Rehabilitation, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., P.226.

Spastic Society of Tamil Nadu (1993): Southern Region Seminar on CBR, Chennai: SPASTN, P. 109

Tjandrakusuma, Handojo (1998): Towards the 21st Century: Challenges for CBR in Asia and the Pacific Region, Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, 9(1), P.9-12.

Vanneste, Geert (1998): CBR: An Introduction, Community Eye Health, 11(24), P.49-50

Wadhwa (Dr.) Sanjay; and Athani (Dr.), B.D. (1989): Draft Action Programme for Inclusion of CBR in Health Care Delivery System for States in India, Delhi, (assistance of ) World Health Organization, P.104

Ward, Marjorie E. (1986): The Visual system in School Geraldine T. (Ed.): Foundation of Education for Blind and Visually Handicapped Children and Youth: Theory and Practice, New York: American Foundation for the Blind, P.35-64

Working Group on CBR of the Regional Inter-agency Committee for Asia and the Pacific (RICAP) Subcommittee on Disability Concerns (1997): Understanding Community - Based Rehabilitation, Bangkok: ESCAP, P.11

World Health Organization (1980): International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps, Geneva, P. 205

World Health Organization (1992): Management of Low Vision in Children, P.7

Training Course for Community Based Rehabilitation Workers for NPRPD Scheme


The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India has launched the National Programme of Rehabilitation of Persons with Disability (NPRPD) to provide comprehensive rehabilitation services to the persons with disabilities in the rural area through the state Govt. The services proposed to be provided under the scheme cover all aspects of rehabilitation starting from prevention, early intervention (including provision for medical assistance, aids and appliances, education, non-vocational and vocational training), economic rehabilitation and integration in the society.

The scheme will have the following systems of providing services.

  1. Panchayat /Grassroot level.
  2. Block level
  3. District level

As it is proposed to initiate the process of rehabilitation at the grassroots level with suitable training and sensitization of parents and the community. For this purpose CBR workers are to be placed at the grassroots level who will be properly trained to provide services at the community level.

Keeping in view of the objectives of the training of grassroots level CBR workers, this on month curriculum has been developed by RCI.


Disability is a physical or intellectual impairment that interfere with the day to day activity expected of an individual or with the process of ordinary education or employment.


Rehabilitation is a continuum of services provided to an individual to overcome or at least compensate in part effects of this impairment. It is multi-sectoral process requiring the collaboration of all concerned Government and non-Governmental agencies in the area. The object of rehabilitation is to mainstream a person with disability in his/her community.


One month or 24 working days or about 144 lectures or practice periods.


  1. Person working under NPRPD scheme.
  2. The parent or close relative of person with disability.
  3. A person who is himself disabled but can render services to the community. He will havepreferably passed the 8th class examination or equivalent.
  4. He/She should preferably be a resident of area in which he/she wishes to work.


Each batch should ordinarily not exceed 25 trainees.


The trainees should be able to undertake the following tasks :-

  1. To conduct a survey on disability in the area on the basis of a check list
  2. To counsel parents on the care of the disabled child or adult.
  3. To make appropriate referrals.
  4. To maintain liaison with appropriate GO's and NGO's to whom referrals can be made.
1 Introduction to disability In this course trainees will be told about the limitation of each disability namely visual impairment, hearing impairment, locomotor impairment and mental retardation. They will also be informed of the educational possibilities of each category of children and adults. Integrated education will be emphasised. 4
2 Concept and Methodologies of community based rehabilitation
  • Historical background of rehabilitation
  • Definition of CBR
  • Overview of CBR practical in India
  • Minimal Component
  • The need of CBR in India
3 Promotion, prevention, early identification and early intervention through field experience based on a simple checklist to be developed for initial identification without reference to medical persons.

The trainees will be acquainted with early identification of various disabilities as
  • Locomotor Disability
  • Leprosy
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Epilepsy
  • Mental Retardation
  • Communication
  • Speech and Language problem
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Visual Impairment
4 Attitudinal changes of the family and community
  • Parental Attitude
  • Community Attitude
  • Parental Counselling
5 Multi sectoral networking

The trainee should be adequately aware about the functioning of GOs, and NGOs functioning in the area. He should pay visits to these organisations and discuss disabilities rehabilitation with them. He/She should be encouraged to form good relationship with all the agencies so that adequate attention can be paid to his/her reference.
6 Rights of the disabled
  • Convention of the disabled
  • Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) Act, 1992
  • Persons with Disability (PWD) Act, 1995
  • National Trust Act, 1999
  • Schemes, Concessions and other facilities available to people withDisability.

7 Familiarisation with local frafts Vocational Education

Trainees should be made aware of the craft practice to the local area. He/She also be aware to make the minor modification, suitable for being practices by persons with various disabilities.
8 Developing a barrier free environment for all persons with Disabilities
9 Preliminary acquaintance with the equipment needed for persons with various disabilities.
  • Assistive devices
  • Aids for Reading, Writing and Eating
  • Aids for Dressing
  • Different types of Walker/Crutches
  • Variety of Seating Possibilities
  • Orthotic Devices
  • Optical and Non-Optical Devices
  • High Technology Aids and Devices
  • Braille Letters
  • Enlarged/Bold Print for Low Vision
  • Types of Cane
  • Suggested activities for child with visual impairment/ low vision
  • Simple Signs
  • Communication Board
  • Hearing Aids.
10 implementation of Community Based Rehabilitation Programme
  • Strategy for CBR programme implementation
  • Sustainability of CBR programme
11 Empowerment of Girls/Women with disability 4
12 Mobilisation of Community Resources
  • Identification of Community resources
  • Mobilisation of Community resources
13 Community awareness and involvement
  • Society Community interaction
  • Initiate Community involvement
  • Social problems, (E.G.) poverty , lack of basic health, facilities etc.
14 Sports, leisure, Cultural and Creative activities 6
15 Holistic approach of rehabilitation 4
16 Evaluation and self-appraisal 6


The teaching will be in the form of multi-sensory inputs. The ratio between practical and theory classes will be 60 40. (60% practical, 40% theory). Group discussion, Role-play, Participatory learning etc. will be adopted.

Project work will include-Profile of survey and preparation of case study etc.

Items will be supplied to individual trainee.

Certificate to be awarded by the Centres.



(25 hrs.)
Disabilities and their assessment (Introduction of disability, characteristic and problems associated with Mental Retardation, Visual Impairment, Locomotor Handicapped, Hearing Impairment and associated disabilities).

(25 hrs.)
Management of Disabilities

(30 hrs.)
Practicals and Evaluation
  1. Objectives:
    This programme aims at providing inputs for understanding different facets of Rehabilitation psychology including -
    1. Types and Assessment of disabilities.
    2. Management of disabilities
    3. Developing necessary skills in rehabilitation work through practical experience.
    The course is meant for practicing Rehabilitation Psychologists registered with Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI).
    It is expected that on the completion of this course the participants will be able to -
    1. Identify the problems of major types of disabilities by using scientific procedure.
    2. To organize rehabilitation work at individual and group level.
  2. Entry Requirement:
    Psychologists working at Rehabilitation Centres / Institutions/ Special Schools / Child Guidance Centres with a post-graduate degree in psychology. Those who are involved in individual practice in this area may also be considered.
  3. Course Duration:
    The course will be of two weeks duration involving 50 hrs of intensive class room work and 30 hrs practical training.
  4. Place of Training :
    In order to cater to the needs of Rehabilitation Psychologists working in different parts of the country, the programme will be run at four centers in East, West, South and North regions. There will be a Local Course Coordinator, who will be responsible for identifying Resource Persons, arranging for practical work and look after the various aspects of monitoring the entire programme including accommodation. The number of participants at centers at any time will not exceed 30 and not less than 20.



Disability and their Assessment -

  1. Basic concept in the area of disability : Impairment, Disability, Handicapped, Habilitation and Rehabilitation.
  2. Definition, nature, types and characteristics of various disabilities:
    • Mental Retardation and associated disabilities.
    • Learning disabilities.
    • Visual disabilities.
    • Hearing and speech disabilities.
    • Locomotor Handicap, neuromuscular disability and multiple disabilities.
  3. Incidence, prevalence, causes and prevention of various disabilities.


  1. Management of Disability.
    1. Role of Psychology in rehabilitation.
    2. Setting and agencies involved in the area of rehabilitation and the nature and models of services available for different disabilities with emphasis on the ground realities in the Indian context.
    3. Government schemes and policies, the role of NGOs legislation and legal aspects and ethical issues related to working with people with disabilities.
  2. The social context of disability in India.
  3. Psychological counselling and guidance for disabled and their parents/spouses/family members.
  4. Behaviour modification.
  5. Communication skills.
  6. Case study.
  7. Use of Psychological tests.
  8. Home based training programmes.
  9. Current issues in health education and preventive services.


  1. Practicals :
    The participants are required to do practical work under the supervision of a faculty. This work is intended to develop the necessary attitude, concepts and skills relevant to rehabilitation work, which will include the following:
    1. Individual testing of persons with disability.
    2. Group testing, counselling, parental guidance and counselling.
    3. Agencies visits.
  2. Evaluation :
    The participants will be assessed for their participation, attendance and assignments. They will also be required to provide feedback about the programme. After successful completion of the programme the participants will be given a certificate.

Foundation Course for IED Teachers in DPEP


Nomenclature of the course:

Foundation course for IED teachers in DPEP.

Duration of the course :

15 days (38 working days).

Total working hours:

228 hours.

Objectives :

  • To develop the competencies of IED teachers so that they can offer better education, particularly, in plus curriculum to students with various disabilities.
  • To assist students with disabilities in understanding those subjects which they cannot readily comprehend in regular classroom.
  • To teach them the use of special equipment.
  • To teach sign language or total communication to the hearing impaired children and Braille to visually impaired children.
  • To teach the use of high magnifying equipment to visually impaired children.
  • To advise the classroom teacher on special arrangements to be made in the classroom for locomotor impaired children.
  • To advise class room teacher on remedial teaching of mentally retarded and learning disabled children.

Entry requirements :

  • Any teacher working in DPEP.
  • He/She should have a Senior Secondary School Certificate (10 + 2 or equivalent).
  • He/She should be trained as Junior Basic Teacher (JBT) or should have a Diploma in Education (D.Ed).

Medium of instruction :

As far as possible the medium of instruction will be state language. However, a handbook or manual might be provided in English.

Number of trainees per batch :

Not exceeding 25.


90% attendance will be compulsory for successfully completing the course.


The course may be located in any NGO or a Govt. organization having necessary facilities like practice teaching school and relevant equipment.

Certification :

On the completion of course every teacher will be given a provisional recognition by RCI subject to the condition that within 5 years he or she will obtain a diploma or a degree in Special Education through the distance mode or conventional teaching.


The aim of DPEP is utilization of primary education and to improve the quality of education imparted to all children. Since a substantial number of children at that stage had various impairments, IED was included in DPEP in 1997. However, work started only in 1998. The purpose of IED in DPEP is to impart quality primary education to moderately and mildly disabled children. DPEP is to impart quality primary education to moderately and mildly disabled children. DPEP is being merged with Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. However, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development has requested that all resource teachers in DPEP should be trained by RCI.

Content Areas

Sl.No. Topics Hrs.
1. Historical perspective of Special Education in India and abroad 04
2. Definitions 02
3. IED guidelines in DPEP 01
4. Educational implications of each impairment
  • Visual impairment
  • Hearing impairment
  • Locomotor impairment
  • Mental Retardation and Learning Disabilities
01 02 01 03
5. Distinction between impairment, disability and handicap 01
6. Personal constraints of blindness and low vision 01
7. Personal constraints of severe hearing impairment 01
8. Persons with Disability Act, 1995 and RCI Act, 1992 02
9. Various models of integrated education (resource room model, itinerant model, dual teaching model, distance learning and alternative schooling). 03
10. Difference between integrated and inclusive education 02
11. Advantages of integrated education 02
12. Functions of resource room 02
13. Equipment and TLM needed in resource room for mentally retarded, learning disabled, visually and hearing impaired children 04
14. Special schools as resource centres for the district and block 02
15. Causes of : Visual impairment Hearing impairment Locomotor impairment Intellectual retardation (mental retardation and learning disabilities) 01 01 01 01
16. Role of DPEP teacher in early identification through a check list 01
17. Classification of hearing impaired children 01
18. Development of speech and language among hearing impaired 04
19. Use of sign language 04
20. Total communication 02
21. Amplification devices for the education of children with HI
  • Characteristics of sound waves
  • How we hear
  • Function of hearing
  • Types and degrees of hearing impairment
  • Causes and prevention of hearing loss
  • Assessment of hearing - screening and diagnostic procedures
  • Record to be maintained
22. Classification of mentally retarded and learning disabled children (dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia and ADHD) 02
23. State and centre schemes for assistance to NGOs 02
24. Developing socially acceptable behaviour among all categories of children with special needs 08
25. Principles of curriculum adaptation for different categories of children in DPEP schools 04
26. Clarification of concepts through locally prepared TLM 06
27. Development of language
  • Receptive and expressive language
  • Discovering rules of language
  • Reading and writing
  • Numerical skills and arithmetic
  • Listening skills - gross and speech
28. Teaching of elementary science and maths at the primary level 03
29. Teaching of special equipment of visually impaired children 06
30. Psycho-social implications
  • Visual impairment
  • Hearing impairment
  • Locomotor impairment
  • Intellectual retardation (MR and LD)
  • Parental attitude
  • Social attitude
  • Parent counselling
31. Specific difficulties arising from each impairment 02
32. Multiple disability : Education of Cerebral Palsy Children 04
33. Observations -02 lesson in each area, namely, visually impaired, locomotor impaired, hearing impaired and intellectual retardation 10
34. Needs of distance learners in all the four categories 08
35. Case conferences 16
36. Concessions available for the disabled 02
37. Knowledge of records to be maintained :
  • By the school
  • By the class teacher
38. Community mobilization including contact with Village Education Committee 10
39. Peer sensitization 02
40. Attitudinal barriers 04
41. Advising regular class room teachers in all the four areas under supervision 24
42. Teaching 15 lessons according to preference 18
43. Monitoring the IED programme 05
44. Overview 15
45. Evaluation 05


Last Updated on Tuesday, 13 December 2011 15:29

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