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Stakeholders Workshop PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 05 September 2011 13:01
(17th and 18th October, 2004)

West Zone
Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan

The first stakeholders’ workshop was held at Harishchandra Mathur Rajya Lok Prasashan Sansthan (OTC) in Udaipur on 17th and 18th October, 2004. Total fifty five representatives from the IEDC Schools, Special Schools, State/Central Education Department Officials of State/District/Block levels, Community Leaders, parents of disabled students studying in IEDC Schools, prominent NGOs working in the field of disability, etc. from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra were assembled for discussing important aspects of IEDC scheme for its improvement in future.

The two days workshop was divided into six sessions. On 17th October morning 55 Participants registered their names for the workshop. The inaugural session was started with the welcome and introductory remarks by Dr. S. K. Prasad. Then the Member Secretary and Principal Investigator Dr. J.P. Singh briefly discussed the various schemes for the person with disabilities and the objective of the workshop. The workshop was formally inaugurated by Mr. O.N. Singh (Director, Department of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, MHRD) by his introductory speech. Dr. Ramesh Parikh (Deputy Director, SSA, Rajasthan), Mr. Sharad Purohit (Director, SIERT Rajasthan) and Mr. Ramdas K. Sinde (IEDC Coordinator, Director of Primary Education, Maharashtra) were also present there in the workshop.

The second session was open to all so that the stakeholders could introduce themselves and discuss freely their opinions about the IEDC scheme. The stakeholders were given a Stakeholders Manual to make them familiar with the various schemes and acts for the persons with disabilities. Most of the stakeholders actively participated in the open ended discussion. Mr.

O. N. Singh and other officials interacted with the participants to know their opinion regarding IEDC Scheme. Field investigators from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra shared their practical experiences of the investigation. They briefly described the implementation scenario of the scheme in their states.

Representatives of Rajasthan said that there is no coordination among the educational administrators in their state. In some places resource rooms are available but there is no teacher who can use this. Stakeholders raised some questions that what are the roles and responsibilities of resource teachers? How many subjects and periods he/she will take in a day or in a week? How he will interact with the special children? There should be a specific guideline in the IEDC scheme regarding all these issues. Some important suggestion cropped up from the open forum discussion –

Special type of training should be given to the Mainstream Teachers so that they can be able to teach Children with Disabilities. It can be started as a small project.

  • Number of special teacher is very less so special type of training should be given to Mainstream Teachers and simultaneously efforts may be taken to increase the No. of special teachers.
  • The syllabus should be prepared considering the capacity of the CWDs.
  • Permanent recruitment of special teachers is also very essential because they don’t have salary equivalent to the Mainstream Teachers.
  • There should be a process to increase the no. of the posts of coordinators for proper supervision and evaluation of the scheme.
  • There should be proper coordination in between related agencies like –administration, SRT and nodal office. Higher level administrators should take care of these projects and should give proper attention to other people with positive attitude.
  • There should be availability of resource rooms and resource teachers.
  • There is a need to spread awareness among the parents/guardians, administrators, educators and related bodies for positive change.
  • There should be one apex institute in the state where training can be given to the resource teachers. There should be some specific guidelines for all the resource teachers of the integrated schools.
  • Ministry should give clear instruction to the state government to direct the health department for issuing disability certificate as early as possible.
  • There should be a system for providing training and trained teachers must be appointed as special teachers.
  • There should be a common Performa to determine disability.
  • There should be hostel facility for Children with Disabilities. The roles and responsibilities of the administration must be mentioned in the scheme for the maintenance of the hostel and care of the children.
  • Recruitment of Mainstream Teacher should be stopped where there is a need of special teacher.
  • Provision of lift for Children with Disabilities (Physically Handicapped).
  • There should be some amount for special teacher’s training programme in IEDC budget.
  • In special school only special children can be admitted but there is a practice that instead of Children with Disabilities some normal children are placed so it should be stopped or those schools may be considered as integrated schools.
  • There should be reservations in Government jobs and vocational training should be given to the Children with Disabilities for employment.
  • There should be a common programme for the education of Children with Disabilities. This programme may be prepared in coordination with other govt. schemes like-SSA.
  • A person should be appointed in integrated schools for coordination.
  • Awareness programme should be started from grass root level.
  • Proper monitoring is essential for implementation of the scheme.
  • There should be some special provision in the IEDC scheme to provide extra benefit to the talented CWDs for their future career.
  • Availability of essential equipments in resource room is essential.
  • Attitude of the people must be free from any bias.
  • Evaluation of integrated system is essential. There should be a prescribed reporting format for the resource teachers.
  • Sensitization of the administration is necessary so that certification process of Children with Disabilities become easier.
  • Orientation camp should be organized for proper integration of the Children with Disabilities. All the non Children with Disabilities should be involved in this programme.
  • Government should monitor all the NGOs which are implementing the IEDC scheme.
  • Number of state level training institution for refresher training courses should be increased.
  • Financial support is not enough in the IEDC scheme.
  • Scholarship should be given to the children in time.
Third session started after the lunch and stakeholders were divided into three groups. After that they discussed different issues regarding IEDC scheme. In the first group Parents of disabled and Children without Disabilities discussed the problems of Children with Disabilities and sorted out some solutions which might be helpful to modify the IEDC scheme. Teachers were grouped together and discussed some problems related to the basic issues of IEDC scheme. The third group discussed the evaluation process, availability of resources and community support to the children with disabilities. They have discussed some possible solutions regarding the problems of the children with disabilities and the IEDC scheme. Fifth session started at 10 am in the morning on the second day. Three group leaders presented the summary and key points of their discussion.

Suggestions of Parents of disabled and non Children with Disabilities are as follows:
  • The society and the community should be made aware of IEDC schools.
  • The Children with Disabilities should be provided medical help from this integrated system.
  • The provisions of the scheme should be advertised through some television channels and posters may be placed in front of the integrated schools.
  • District education officer should have the list of the integrated schools.
  • The success story of the integrated schools and the students should be published in the popular news media.
  • The community meeting should be organized at the local level.
  • The age group of the students studying under this scheme is 5 years to 18 years. The fact is that the parents come to know about the disability of their child quite late. Till that time the age limit is crossed and the child does not get opportunity to study under this scheme. So, there should be relaxation of age limit in this scheme.
  • The nature of the disability of the child should be made confirmed by the doctors and civil surgeon of the Govt. hospitals. The medical persons should conduct a survey in the nearby locality.
  • It is very necessary to know whether the disabled child can cope up the barriers or not. The school management and the teachers should seat together and discuss the problems.
  • The schools should provide the financial help to the Children with Disabilities.
  • There should be physiotherapist and speech-therapist in the integrated schools.
  • In every city there should be one model integrated school with all the necessary equipments and facilities.
  • The awareness should be increased at all levels.
  • It is difficult to provide escort for all the physically challenged children. The existing provision in the scheme is not enough.
  • Attitudes of the senior members of the family should be changed .They think that it is not necessary to send the disabled child to IEDC School. Superstitions of the family members should be changed. (Still some people believe that it is the sin of the last birth that such a child is born in the family).
    • There are number of difficulties in sending the child to the normal schools like
    • a) Less no. of schools b) Escort problems. c) Lack of appliances provided to the children. e) Lack of information.
  • The physically handicapped children can not do the home work. The dumb and deaf, MR children can not complete the home work properly. Such children should get the subject notes and reader/writer.
  • If the school does not have good resource room then it should seek help from cluster resource room which must be fully equipped.
  • NGO’s can guide and help the school authorities to get the proper financial sources either Govt. or social agencies.
  • The people living in the nearby vicinity of the integrated school should accept the nature of the school.
  • Awareness should be generated through mass media campaign. A TV serial like “EK GHAR ASPAS” should be shown to the people.
  • Cultural programs should be organized for better integration of the Children with Disabilities.
  • A committee should be formed including the Panchayat and corporation members, school teachers and other member from the community. Panchayat and corporation members may
be invited to the school for some function then suggestions may be asked to solve the problem of the system.

  • Child adoption programme may be initiated. The child may be adopted for a year and the person who adopts the child should bear the expenditure.
  • Community should also raise some funds to provide the needs of the handicapped child.
  • The budget and the no. of trained teachers should be increased.
  • Special educators should be appointed.
  • Category wise equipments should be supplied.
  • Technical persons to repair the appliances should be made available and some honorarium should be given to them.
  • Integrated School building should be modified a) Brail boards should be set up. b) A board may be placed at the entrance of the school so that the Children with
Disabilities and other people get informed about the facilities which are provided by the integrated school. c) Ramps should be made with railings. d) The class rooms of the integrated schools must be barrier free. Teachers contributed these following suggestions

  • In board exams, if child has certificate of more than 40% disability then they are given extra half an hour. At lower classes, it is normally not done. Authority should develop clear instruction about all standards regarding extra time and send circulars to all schools. They should be given calculator for calculation. Exams syllabus should be specified for VI/HI/MR/OH/CP. Mode of evaluation should be mix of oral/written/bestial and continuous examination. Modified pen should be given to CP/MR child.
  • If teacher is aware then she/he usually allows the child to seat in front row. But majority of cases they are not getting attention. School teacher should be given orientation regarding that and other issues related to disability.
  • NGOs should play lead role to spread the awareness regarding govt. schemes and other facilities available for the CWDs. CRC/BRC or DDRC should make network with such schools.
  • Monitoring mechanism should be developed. DIET or district authority can be involved in this process. They should receive regular feedback from the schools.
  • Govt. should take the proposal for next Years (Tentative) with the current Year’s proposal and release grant (50%) in advance.
  • Salary of resource teacher should be included with Mainstream Teacher so that every month they can get their salary.
  • Parents of non Children with Disabilities object in some cases for the inclusion of CWDs. There is accessibility problem for children with special needs in the integrated school.
  • Curriculum guidelines should be provided for VI/HI/MR/CP. Teachers should be oriented about the special needs of the CWDs.
Different types of stakeholders were grouped together for discussing evaluation process, availability of resources and community support to the children with disabilities. They have given the following suggestions.

  • It is felt by the group members that there should be a yearly and continuous assessment of oral, practical and written work of the child. The emphasis should be given more on practical and oral exam. Prescribed format should be developed for this work.
  • Relaxation of time and writers should be provided to the Children with Disabilities. Laser printed questionnaires should be prepared by the education department of the state within a time bound period.
  • Questions should be simplified for MR students and number of multiple choice questions should be increased. Large print type and work sheets should be developed for blind children. Audio-based home-work should be given for visually impaired children.
  • Teacher must motivate the non Children with Disabilities of the class to be friendly with the Children with Disabilities and the peer group should be motivated to help these CWDs in their home-work and class work.
  • There should be a provision of zero periods for the children with disability to spend some time in resource room. Weekly half day provision should be there for spending in the resource room.
  • Resource teacher may play a major role as counselor, facilitator or vocational guide.
  • Mainstream Teacher can also play an important role by sensitizing CWDs. They should be responsible for the academic and educational progress of the CWDs.
  • Three is no regular interaction between regular and resource teachers for developing teaching strategy for the children with disabilities. Resource teacher should attend Mainstream Teachers meetings and staff meetings compulsorily and give some suggestions to them as per their requirement. General class teachers and resource teachers can prepare a combined I and P (Individualized education plan).
  • There is very little local community awareness about the IEDC scheme. Mainstream Teachers in service awareness training must be arranged in every year. WES (Ward educational Service) and VES (Village Educational Service) member’s awareness programme of 5 days duration should be conducted by SERT/SIERT and through DIET of cluster level. Training of administrators and field officers must be essential for the community awareness.
    • A committee for evaluation should be formed which will constitute the members as follows.
      • 1 Block resource coordinator
      • Trustee of NGO implementing IED schemes.
      • Special educators 1 each of every disability (M.R., HI, VI).
      • Class teacher/principal.
      • Taluka extension education officer.

Guidelines which are available in Gujarat state should be provided to other state centers. It will provide guidance to resource teachers how to evaluate the HI, VI and MR child.

Bangalore (18th and 19th December, 2004)

South Zone
Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Kerala

Navya, a hearing impaired student, is the best example of the IEDC success story in Karnataka. She has been integrated in the normal section and now stands first, beating other normal students in the class. She is a good Bharatnatyam dancer too. Earlier she had to be accompanied by someone but now-a-days she travels alone. She regularly attends the school and already proved that integrated education can build up a productive student. Navya attended the stakeholders’ workshop along with her mother and brought a fresh air to convey the message that though there are some problems but IEDC is not a flop scheme at all. A number of findings came out from the south zone stakeholders’ workshop. Project team had organized the stake holder’s workshop at NMKRV College for Women in Bangalore on 18th and 19th December 2004. Total 37 Participants attended the workshop. The stakeholders represented Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Kerala. Head of the Integrated School, Special School, Mainstream school, NGO representatives, Community Leaders, Educational administrators, Special teachers and Parents of Children with Disabilities assembled together to discuss the different aspects of IEDC Scheme.

The First day was divided into three open sessions. After inauguration three sessions were offered to the participants to discuss different issues regarding the scheme. Participants discussed on some specific issues and gave their suggestions regarding the scheme. Field investigators shared their experiences of data collection and briefly describe the situation of IEDC scheme in three states of south India. According to the field investigator of Karnataka, there is an excellent co-operation from the teachers and head of the all schools (General, Special and Integrated Schools). Co-operation from all the educational administrators was also good. Resource room is normally available for a cluster of schools. But parents are complaining about the non-availability of audio cassettes/books and other materials. Teachers were not happy because of the lack of follow up training.

Field investigator from Tamilnadu has described that the common people are not aware of IEDC scheme at all. He also indicated that all schools are having resources but the resource equipments are not being used properly. Community participation is less in Tamilnadu and if the Special teachers are givens the permanent Job then they might be encouraged to give their best.

Different issues discussed in open forum at the 1st session. Some NGO representatives of Tamilnadu responded that the resource plan of integrated education is very prominent in their state. Some valuable points cropped up after the discussion.


  • Community participation is lacking everywhere because of awareness.
  • Follow up training is lacking in south Indian states.
  • There should be very good understanding in between parents, teachers and children so that their main problems can be solved.
  • Budget is a big constraint to provide proper facilities to the Children with Disabilities in integrated set up. Amount of allowances should be enhanced to meet the need of the children with disabilities.
  • Multi category teachers’ training has to be initiated.
  • No Specific guideline is mentioned for recruiting special teachers. There should be some specific guidelines from the MHRD regarding the recruitment of special teachers.
  • There is a need to train more and more teachers as it is difficult to get qualified special teacher for integrated school.
  • Preference should be given to the integrated school which is having more Children with Disabilities. So, there should be a special provision in the scheme regarding this issue.
  • Still some parents are thinking that disability is a stigma so they do not want to reveal their child’s disability. Therefore, the scheme will not be successful until the attitude of parents is changed. If the CWDs are put to school at the correct age, then there will be no problem at all. So, IEDC implement authority should think about this problem while they amend the scheme.
  • There should be a countywide network among the IEDC scheme implementing NGOs. A number of problems can be solved through this network.
  • There should be an uniform eligibility criteria for the recruitment of special teachers in the integrated schools through out the country.
  • Special teachers should prepare the resource material for the CWDs.
  • There should be regular monitoring over the activities of the integrated school.
  • Some integrated schools are not getting grants from the MHRD. There is no response from the MHRD regarding the release of the fund. The teachers of these schools were
not getting their salaries since 2-3 years. So, there should be some proper communicating channel in between grantee and MHRD.

  • It is proved that sometimes disabled students performed well without special teacher. Mainstream Teachers can also make the difference. So, Mainstream Teachers may be oriented through some programme for better integration of the disabled students.
  • The second session was devoted for the parents and NGO representatives. Some specific issues were discussed and participants gave their suggestions. A hearing impaired student from Bangalore accompanied by her mother attended the workshop. Her mother told that earlier she was ignorant about the integrated education so got delayed by 6 years to admit her child in the integrated school. Some important points recorded from the second session are as follows.
  • Awareness programme should be prepared by the implementing authority for total success of the scheme.
  • There should be free and compulsory education for the children with disabilities.
  • One parent pointed out that his son regularly goes to the school but not get benefited from the integrated education system. According to that parent there is no meaning of integrated education because teachers are not capable enough to understand the need of the disabled students in an integrated set up.
  • The Children with Disabilities are not getting the benefit of integrated education as teachers are not oriented properly. Even a Mainstream Teacher is not aware about the IEDC scheme and how to behave with the Children with Disabilities.
  • Some NGO representatives recommended that MHRD should finalize the names of the implementing agencies on the basis of the past achievements and experiences. Leading NGO or state education department may be the implement agency.
  • NGO/Implementing agency should be permitted to start ‘Assessment Centre’ of the Children with Disabilities with specific guidelines.
  • The project director of NGO may claim honorarium if the project areas are many and children are more than 500.
  • The implementing agency should be permitted to appoint the specially qualified coordinator to implement, monitor and evaluate the IEDC programme. Financial assistance would be earmarked separately.
  • Reader allowance may be enhanced from Rs.50 to Rs.200 per month in case of blind students after class V under IEDC programme.
  • The disabled hostellers whose parent’s income does not exceed Rs. 5000/-per month may be paid actual boarding and lodging charges subjects to a maximum of Rs. 600/-per month. The present allotment is Rs. 200/-P.M. is very less.
  • Qualified resource teachers may be paid specially Rs. 400/- Per month in urban areas and 500/- per month in rural areas apart from the actual govt. pay.
  • Preparation of the young impaired children up to 6 Years for education being essential. The pre schools facilities should be developed by the implementing agency. Supported guidelines for financial assistance for children, play materials, pre school teachers salary etc would be provided or permitted in the scheme.
    • National/State level expert group to be formed for evaluation and monitoring of IEDC.
    • Third session of the 1st day was devoted for the head of the Mainstream school, special school, integrated school and the NGO representatives who are receiving grants from MHRD. Summary of the discussion is as follows
  • It is felt that education should be made compulsory and free especially in rural areas.
  • Special teachers are not getting their salary regularly. Grants are not received by the implementing agency in time.
  • Evaluation system has to be adopted to make the scheme more effective.
  • The role of both special and Mainstream Teachers is like two sides of the same coin. So both types of teachers should be oriented through consultation in the integrated set up.
  • Some participants advocated in favour of Mainstream Teachers. According to their opinion one Mainstream Teacher can be a good alternative of a special teacher if he/she goes through proper orientation programme.
  • Representative of kerala advocated in of more funds for the IEDC scheme.
  • Evaluation system should be changed like feed back form with multiple choice questions and question bank.
  • The monitoring system is not working properly in these south Indian states to evaluate the integrated programme.
  • The linkage in between special schools and integrated schools is weak.
  • There is a clear demarcation between special schools and the normal schools and they have to be brought together to make the scheme more successful.
  • Special teachers from Tamilnadu complained that their salaries are not paid in time because grants are not received in time.
  • Teachers complained that the scheme is good for the Children with Disabilities but not so good for the special teachers. The resource teachers are not being integrated properly. The teachers are in a miserable condition as they are not getting their salary in time and also not having loan facility.
  • IEDC implementing agencies are facing a number of problems. Grants are not sanctioned timely. It takes too much time to sanction the order by the competent authority.
  • It should be mandatory for the principals of integrated school to visit other IEDC schools to improve there services.
  • There should be proper coordination between the general, special and integrated schools to facilitate integrated education to the CWDs.
Andhra Pradesh was not included in the survey of this project. But some govt. officials were invited to know the situation of integrated education in Andhra Pradesh. Representatives of Andhra Pradesh explained reasons behind the low enrollment of CWDs their state. The non-residential norm in IEDC schools is not able to help the enrollment and retention. So, it is needed to provide boarding and lodging facilities to the children with disabilities in the integrated set up. There should be some coordination committees at state and district levels.

In second day, stakeholders were divided into four different state wise groups for focus group discussion. After discussion one group leader from each group presented their

suggestions to make the scheme more effective. Suggestions of those four groups were multifaceted. Their suggestions are recorded as follows:

Recommendation from the stakeholders of Karnataka
  • Admission should be made compulsory for Children with Disabilities in each and every school.
  • There should be a nodal officer to look after all the activities in each district and Taluka. Government should depute or appoint one primary teacher for this purpose in full time basis.
  • There must be a separate state level administrative setup for IEDC scheme only.
  • Co- operation is needed in between headmaster and IEDC teachers. Government should appoint IEDC teachers. NGO appointed existing teachers should be regulated by the Govt. and they may be paid as per the Govt. scale.
  • The teacher recruitment should be as per ratio of the students. Teachers should be uniformly recruited through proper channel.
  • Specific teachers and officers should be deputed for work shops and conference and any other implementing programmes in the disability sector.
  • One resource center is to be setup with permanent resource teachers in each taluka. Number of resource centers may be increased according to the number of Children with Disabilities.
  • Resource materials should be placed in the resource room as per the need of the existing disabled students.
  • Every year taluka level sports are to be conducted where grants for other schemes should be diverted to IEDC schemes.
  • Qualified special teachers should be appointed in the integrated schools.
  • Scribe allowance should be provided by the IEDC scheme.
  • Identification of Children with Disabilities and all the facilities are to be channeled through the IEDC scheme.
  • CBR Activities should be included in IEDC scheme.
Recommendations from Tamilnadu
  • At least 1% of the total education budget of the state Govt. should be ear marked for Integrated Education.
  • One permanent resource teacher may be appointed for each integrated school and well equipped resource room should be established.
  • Resource teaching for the CWDs should have to be mobilized by the authority with the help of NGOs.
  • Curriculum for vocational training should be modified. Integrated education may be included as a compulsory paper in B.Ed course curriculum.
  • Orientation to existing teachers should be made effective.
  • State education departments should be the nodal agency and networking with NGO is absolutely necessary.
  • Specific guidelines for assessment centre for Children with Disabilities should be given and the state implementing agency/NGO may be permitted to initiate these centres.
  • Preparatory centers for the Children with Disabilities of 0-6 years are absolutely necessary for early intervention.
  • The present system of anganwadi / balwadi centers should be strengthened with proper trained resource personnel.
  • State implementing agencies have to form the special cell for IEDC as per guidelines laid down by MHRD.
  • Hostel Boarding and lodging charges for the disabled students should be uniformly framed (As per the social justice empowerment department).
  • National level/state level expert groups have to be formed and they should be vested with the responsibility of action and monitoring the project.
  • Honorarium for Special teachers should be uniformly fixed across the country.
  • Preparation of instructional manual and guide book for special teachers and Mainstream teachers should be prepared in the local language.
  • Evaluation procedures have to be framed at the National/State level for the benefit of Children with Disabilities.
  • Regional level workshops/conferences may be organized for sharing the experiences at regular intervals.
  • Web based monitoring system has to be implemented. All relevant information about the Children with Disabilities should be made available this will be much useful for the training and necessary actions.
Recommendations by the KERALA Representatives
  • Resource room facilities should be provided to all schools at various levels and the materials required should be supplied through IEDC scheme and its standard should be checked.
  • Awareness of the students should be increased.
  • Liberty to modify the syllabus in all levels according to the disability criteria at the school level itself such as (a) Objective type (b) Multiple choice questions (c) Oral
  • Corrections required in the manual given regarding the concessions allotted.
  • Amount for transport and escort should be increased for students coming from far distances.
  • Awareness should be given to these parents who are reluctant to disclose the disability of their child.
  • B.Ed and other Teachers Training course curriculum should include one paper on inclusive education.
  • A minimum of 1% job opportunity in the private sector should be compulsory be awarded to disabled candidates.
  • Hostel fees should be increased up to Rs. 600/- month for disable children.
  • All resource teachers should be trained by RCI in the field of multi disability.
  • Recruitment of resource teacher should be done by the Public Service Commission or by the state recruiting agencies.
  • It would be better to pay the Children with Disabilities instead of supplying equipment aids.
  • Medical camps should be conducted in the Panchayat levels by SSA (children from 1 to 8 years) and IEDC (children from 9 to 12 years) and the fund should be met by the IEDC scheme.
  • There should be a provision in IEDC scheme to bear the expenditure for the surgery of the disabled child to help them up to maximum extent.
  • Financial assistance may be given to the students (from class one to five) studying in integrated set up.
  • Mainstream teachers, already working in schools should provide training course in multi disability so that the scope of education for all will be fulfilled.
Suggestions from the Andhra Pradesh Representatives
  • Improving access by providing more integrated schools.
  • More emphasis is required for providing pre school facilities.
  • Sufficient funds should be allocated for construction of resource rooms and their maintenance.
  • Regular scales should be started instead of honorarium.
  • Regular release of grants.
  • More emphasis should be given on convergence with disabled welfare dept. and medical dept.
  • In case of Andhra Pradesh only VI and HI children are being integrated presently. OH and MR children are also need to be integrated.
Kolkata (5th and 6th February) East and Northeast Zone

Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal,
Assam, Nagaland and Tripura

IEDC scheme is being implemented in West Bengal in a different way. The state government has merged the IEDC scheme with PBRPSUS to reach more and more children with disabilities. The concept of integration is different in Bihar and Orissa. There is no clear idea of IEDC scheme among state government officials in Nagaland. Even principals of integrated schools are not aware of the integrated concept in Tripura. These are the few examples of information that cropped up in a two day’s workshop at the auditorium of the Institute of Cooperative Management and Rural Development in Kolkata. Earlier it was decided to organize two stakeholders’ workshop in eastern zone and north eastern zone. But finally stakeholders from six states of these two zones were invited to attend the workshop at Kolkata. There were total 30 participants from Assam, Tripura, Nagaland, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal. The inaugural session was chaired by Dr. J. P. Singh, Member Secretary and principal investigator of the project. Mr. P. K. Goswami, special secretary of the school education department, Govt. of West Bengal, was present in the workshop as chief guest.

The first day was divided into three sessions. The first session was chaired by Dr. Manoj Dash, executive assistant to the President of SOS Children’s Villages of India. The first session was devoted to the educational administrators. Some interesting information cropped up at that workshop.

  • The govt. official who represented Nagaland, told that he has no idea about the IEDC scheme but pointed out that general attitude of the people towards the children with disabilities is not good. So, common people should be sensitized.
  • Govt. official from West Bengal informed that they have adopted a plan to merge the funds of IEDC and SSA for the 400 schools in the state. So, there is no separate concept of IEDC scheme. Each and every school is integrated school in West Bengal. In a survey they were interviewed total 30000 children and it was reveled that among them 24419 were integrated children. SSA has engaged different NGOs for proper implementation of the project. 142 special educators are presently involved in this programme through NGO’s. Every NGO involved 3 special educators. They get fund for only 2000 children for assessment purpose from IEDC scheme but their target is to reach up to 60000 children.
  • One state IEDC cell in charge explained that they are facing big problem to get the money from MHRD. He gave an example that last year MHRD sanctioned Rs 53 lakhs but till date they have received only the first installment for the sum of Rs 26 lakhs.
  • There are 1042 special educators working under SSA scheme and they are also working to integrate CWDs. One administrator from West Bengal told that they are inspecting the schools but it is needed to monitor properly to make the scheme effective.
  • Govt. official from Bihar told that they are not getting fund from the govt. and could not work properly. They are identifying Children with Disabilities through household survey and admit them to the schools. But the scheme is not fruitful in Bihar.
  • One school inspector from West Bengal pointed out that there is a big problem of superstition among common people. It is needed to organize some programme to create public awareness. Some books or booklets on physical heath, social health and community health should be provided to the Parents. There is a need for counselling of parents for at least one day in a week. The CWDs must be encouraged to participate in various sports activities and cultural programmes.
  • There is a big confusion over the differences in between IEDC and IED. Even some of the educational administrators are not aware of the differences in between two.
  • Parent’s awareness is the most important thing for early intervention. Awareness is the most important factor to make the scheme effective. One educational administrator from west Bengal mentioned that they are sending special educators door to door to know the special need and problems of the children.
  • One administrator from Nagaland mentioned that there are 10,000 Children with Disabilities in the state. The main problem is lack of fund to provide proper education to those children. They are conducting in-service training and teacher’s training programme but political willingness is another problem in Nagaland.
  • One question raised by the principal investigator that why grant is not available. What measures should be taken to receive the grant in time? One administrator answered that communication is the main problem and the system of sending the grant proposal should be changed. The communication in between MHRD and the grantee must be easier. After sending the proposal and repeated reminders some implementing agencies and state governments are not getting response from the MHRD. The MHRD should control
the whole process properly and cut short the administrative red tapes for effective implementation of the scheme.

The second session was devoted to the NGO representatives who are working in the field of disability, the parents of the Children with Disabilities and community leaders. Field investigators explained their experiences while collecting data and impact of the scheme in their respective state.

Field investigator of Orissa told that even district welfare officer is not aware about the NGOs who are working with the scheme. Orissa government does not give salaries to special educators for several months. The MHRD is not giving money regularly to the implementing agency. The parents and the community should be sensitized. Active community participation can change the whole scenario. There should be a strict monitoring system to assess the progress of the scheme.

Field investigator of Bihar told that they are not getting funds for this Programme since 1999. There is no awareness about the IEDC scheme among general people and even the educational administrators. There should be a separate provision for MR children under IEDC scheme.

The field investigator of Assam told that there is a mixed concept of IED and IEDC scheme. He expressed his doubt regarding the proper implementation of the scheme particularly in Assam.

Field investigator from Tripura Mr. Sudip Dutta told that they met with 3 district inspectors of state. None of them were aware that how many schools are running the IEDC scheme. Even at the time of data collection they have faced lots of difficulties due to the non cooperation of the state govt. officials. He informed that even head of the integrated schools are not aware about the integration concept. There are no special teachers in the IEDC schools. There should be some support services, resource teachers, more equipments and teaching learning materials.

No assessment team was formulated for certification. 4 district medical boards are there. It is better to organize mobile certification camps in remote areas. Community is not aware of the IEDC scheme.

• One participant from west Bengal responded that he is working with IED scheme and guide schools that how to teach Children with Disabilities by the help of

necessary TLM. According to the NGO representative they give advice to the parents of Children with Disabilities and taking initiative to change the attitude towards CWDs. The person said that Children with Disabilities are suffering from lack of security so it is necessary to improve the situation. Integrated school is social institution so more community support is needed towards CWDs.

  • One NGO representative told that he was confused with IED and IEDC scheme. He said that he is working in the disability field and having no idea about the IEDC scheme so one can easily guess the impact of IEDC scheme among common people.
  • Another NGO representative told that they have submitted a proposal to the Govt and received 4 lakhs. They employ 32 volunteer teachers for 8070 Children with Disabilities. According to the respondent the scheme should be modified for better implement. They established their institutions to teach Children with Disabilities and provide them all facilities. They are not running IEDC scheme and totally dependent on the public donations. He has pointed out that it is needed urgently to develop human resources in the field of special education.
  • It is difficult to integrate visually impaired children because there is no infrastructure in these integrated schools. There should be some separate provision in the IEDC scheme to integrate VI children. Braille books, computers should be given to the integrated schools for the real integration of the visually impaired children.
  • Most of the respondent pointed out that awareness is the key factor for effective implementation of the scheme. Respondents suggested that there should be a big board in front of every integrated school. The board should highlight the benefits of the scheme for the CWDs. It may enhance the awareness among common people.
  • To improve IEDC programme there should be proper utilization of TLM and books on TLM.
Third session started in the last hour of the first day and continued to the next day morning session. Dr. Manoj Dash and Dr. Sanjay Kant Prasad jointly conducted the session. The third session was devoted for the NGO representatives receiving grants from MHRD, head of the special, general and integrated schools. This was an open

session where respondents discussed different issues related to the IEDC scheme. Some important information and suggestion came out from this session.
  • One NGO representative from Orisssa suggested that a notice board should be fixed in front of every integrated school describing the IEDC fund distribution so that the parents would be able to learn the details of the scheme. He said that they are working for total 131 units, in each unit there is one school so there are 131 schools in total and 91 resource teachers. The resource teachers of these units are not getting salary since 39 months. He traced that the main problem is the attitude of the state government.
  • One NGO representative from Bihar informed that the students do not come to the school so they have investigated the reason through door to door survey and tried to bring them to the school. They have also trained minimum daily living skills to the students. Peer tutoring process is also used while teaching the students with low vision i.e. normal students help them in studying. During examination extra time is provided to the students with disability. Hearing Children with Disabilities are assessed by the use of appropriate equipment. They also arrange parents’ sensitization programme. Speech therapist from Asha Kiran School helps the organization. MR children are also helped by one psychologist. Their NGO had been implementing the scheme in 9 schools along with 9 teachers (1 resource teacher is having diploma in mental retardation). All of them are higher secondary passed and they have undergone CRE programme.
  • One NGO representative complained that they are not receiving grant timely so MHRD should take initiative to cut short the process they are interested in further mobilizing the fund. They face the same problem every year when they submit the proposal for receiving the grant.
  • Transport facility is needed for proper integration of the CWDs in the remote villages of the east and north-eastern India. The available facilities are not enough.
  • There should be a provision in the scheme to involve a Doctor in the process of integration.
  • There is no contingency fund in the scheme so it is difficult meet the need of organizational expenditure. There should be a provision in the scheme for organizational expenditure.
  • Activities of the NGOs should be monitored and one NGO should be given the power to control other NGOs. That supervising NGO may be selected according to performance.
  • Illiteracy of the guardian is also a major factor. It is needed to create awareness among the parents about the importance of education and the IEDC scheme.
  • More incentives with more aids and appliances should be provided to the Children with Disabilities.
  • One primary school teacher told that he has 7 physically Children with Disabilities in his school. Children are not being provided proper training in that set up because there is no special teacher. More special teachers are required to make the scheme successful. He suggested that disability certificates for the Children with Disabilities should be provided quickly.
  • One NGO representative from West Bengal suggested that there should be one remedial teacher in each and every integrated school. Sensitization of parents, teachers, government officials and community members is necessary for the success of the scheme. The children are being neglected in the existing set up so modification is needed for proper implementation of the scheme.
After the morning session of the first day three groups were made for group discussion. Different stakeholders were selected randomly and divided into three groups. Each Group was given some general issues regarding IEDC Scheme. Each group was asked to submit their group discussions report separately.

(Recommendation from the Group Discussion)

  • Govt. officials, general teachers and parents are not sensitized yet. It would be the foremost task to sensitize them so that CWDs can be accepted early in the school.
  • Good networking among the professionals, parents and local administrators should be established.
  • Orientation program for the Govt officials at least once in a year is required.
  • Disability issues should be included in the module of state level or national level administrative training.
  • Awareness raising programmes should be organized to sensitize the MLAs and Local body member.
  • The concept of IEDC can be given to folk artists to raise the awareness among public.
  • Resource support for preparatory classes – Resource help from special schools, early child education centres and ICDS system can be taken to make the CWDs prepared who are coming to Mainstream school system.
  • The scheme can be implemented effectively by appointing more special teachers, establishment of resource room with adequate equipments, increasing the incentive limit for the CWDs enrolled in the school.
  • There should be Braille books, provision of Braille computer is needed to increase the quality of education for the visually impaired children.
  • For effective implementation of IEDC more NGOs should be involved.
  • A separate IEDC cell should be established in every state and union territories with necessary staffs.
  • For every IEDC school one resource teacher/specialist teacher should be appointed.
  • The IEDC School must be barrier free.
  • Necessary TLM and equipment should be there in IEDC schools.
  • A linkage among the Government and NGO agencies like VRC, CRC and national institutions.
  • The Parents, Community Leaders should be made aware about the benefit and advantages of IEDC scheme. They must be sensitized also.
  • Where there is discrimination among the non-disable children about the disable children these non-disable children could be sensitized through dramas plays to eradicate it.
  • More and More rehabilitation professionals should be involved at the time of appointment of teachers in Private School.
  • Quarterly Progress of the integrated schools should be reported to the concerned district collector.
Group –C
  • Awareness generation of the Children with disabilities, social animators, community members, parents and other members of the family on disability issues.
  • Awareness generation of government officials on various disability issues as -Prevention, Types of disability, early detection and early intervention, pre-school education/special education, inclusive and integrated education, vocational Training, Social integration, Disability rights, Disability acts, Facilities and concessions for the CWDs.
  • Integrated camp should be organized for the training of general teachers and the parents.
  • Discussions on M.T.A. and P.T.A. regarding child’s progress or difficulties and needs. Parent and student counselling programme has to be more frequent and continuous depending on the availability of the teachers, special educators, parents and students.
  • Vocational training should be provided to the children with disabilities from an early age of 12 years so that they can be skilled enough to enter into an integrated set up.
  • To conduct co-curricular activities regularly. Games/Sports/Leisure activities/Cultural activities like singing, dancing, drama, art and craft session etc.
  • Budget proposal system should be modified for the state like Assam and Orissa.
    • In every integrated school infrastructure facilities should be made barrier free and environment friendly as
      • Tap water provision within the reaching level of the children.
      • Railings and handles in toilet
      • Special toilet seat/ commode
      • Ground floor class rooms for the physically handicapped students.
  • Refresher courses/orientation programme to be conducted for the special teachers.
  • The time gap should be provided in between examinations of CWDs.
  • Aids and appliances should be provided promptly to the children with disabilities.
  • Mobile disability camp for providing disability/medical certificates should be arranged at gram Panchayat level or block level.
  • Transport facilities should be provided to the Children with Disabilities.


New Delhi
(19th and 20th March, 2005)

North and Central Zone
Delhi, Madhya Pradesh,
Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh,
Haryana and Punjab

Fourth stakeholders’ workshop was held at USO International Centre in New Delhi on 19th and 20th March 2005. The Panelist and Participants were Educational Administrators from Block/ Distrct /State level/ integrated School Principles/ heads of the Schools, Parents of the Children with Disabilities, Panchayat/ Community leaders, NGO representatives.

Inaugural Session
This session was devoted to present the objectives of the project and the workshop. Eminent panelists like Prof. Jayachandran, Dr. S.K. Prasad and Dr. Manoj K. Dash presented the facts of the scheme and the evaluation methodology of the research project. Dr. J. P. Singh, principal investigator explained the objective of the stakeholders’ workshop and the role of RCI in this research project.

Some important points cropped up in the inaugural session….

™ Special educators must understand the psychological needs of the children with special needs.

™ Institute like NCERT, NEAPA DIET DPEP should have special provisions for training of these special teachers

™ There is a scarcity of the trained human resources in this field so steps should be taken in this direction to enhance the number of professionals.

™ Accountability and quality are two important factors for the success of the programme

™ Proper utilization of the resources in proper way is important

™ There must be efficiency test for the selection of the appropriate special teachers.

™ Special educators in India are the best educators but it is ironical that results are very less.

First Session
The session was based on the discussion with the educational administrators and brief from the field investigators from 6 states. This session was chaired by Prof. Jayachandran and it was coordinated by Dr. Manoj Kumar Dash.

Field investigator from Uttar Pradesh shared his experience. He told that awareness is the main problem for proper implementation of the scheme. During his visit to the higher authorities he found that most of the concerned officers were not aware about the IEDC scheme. Another important problem is lack of coordination between NGOs and state agencies. Besides these there is a lack of trained professionals, effective communication, few number of IEDC implementing schools and bureaucratic hurdles. Field investigator of Delhi emphasized various problems of IEDC implementation in the capital territory of India.

™ Teachers are not qualified enough to take care of children with special needs.

™ Parents were not satisfied.

™ Principals complained about the lack of infrastructure and financial support

™ No orientation and no awareness about the IEDC scheme.

™ Drop out rate is alarming that means CWDs are not properly benefited.

™ No public awareness.

™ No special educators.

™ Teachers ask for more inventions to work with children with special need.

™ Organizational and structural problems in the implementing schools.

™ No proper networking with the partner organizations.

™ 3155 children with special need studying in deferent school in Delhi.

Field investigator of Madhya Pradesh told the problems regarding the IEDC scheme implementation. ™The government offices were reluctant to help. ™During the data collection only children with locomotors disorder, hearing and visual empowerment were found. ™No MR children were found in the MP among the sample schools.

™ No resource teachers were found nor are they envied from out side to help the children

with special need. One IEDC coordinator from Delhi informed about proper functioning of the integrated schools. According to that person

™ Admission procedure must be simplified in every school. ™Emphasis must be given to sensitized people for these Children with Disabilities. ™Funding problem is one of the major problems. Due to lack of fund it is not possible to

provide proper facilities to the Children with Disabilities. ™Due to lack of funding proper orientation programme can not be organized. ™Lack of coordination between various agencies. ™Problem of delay in processing of file due to different administration slabs. ™Lack of staff or frequent transfer of the staff is one major problem. ™It is felt by the administrator that effective orientation and training is needed at right time. ™A regular meeting of the staffs is required for proper functioning of the scheme. ™The respondent suggested that special education must be included as compulsory

paper in all B.Ed. courses. ™Barrier free facilities must be compulsory in every institution there must be strict provision for this. ™Various exhibitions/meetings/ special events must be organized at local level to enhance the social consciousness. It is not possible always due to fund constraint. ™There must be a provision for separate syllabus for Mental Retardation and Hearing Impaired students. One participant raised a point that due to not having autonomy teacher are not able to work freely. Another problem is in receiving information. There must be an agency from where information can be collected easily.

Most of the respondents opined that there must be a proper strategy for getting fund. One respondent suggested that concerning agencies must approach to the MLA/MP of their respective area to get the fund on time.

There should be one person who can be able to give detailed information about the number of teachers in a locality.

Lack of coordination in between various agencies is the main hurdle before the scheme.

There is no competent authority that can provide relevant data regarding IEDC scheme.

One educational administrator from Himachal Pradesh informed that in H.P. IED-and IEDC running together. Total 2840 (6-18 yrs) disabled student were identified

He informed that more disabled students are enrolled with NGOs. More training courses must be organized for giving quality education.

One representative from Haryana informed that there are total 124 centers running IEDC scheme. He has given only micro view about his centre. Lack of the consciousness is the main problem. Lack of funding is also a factor for proper implementation of the scheme.

It is also suggested by an expert that qualitative utilization of fund is important rather than quantity. Teacher must use special devices for these special need students, in the same common classroom.

Uniformity of rules must be applied in all the states and the processing of the proposal must be simplified.

It is needed to sensitize people for proper implementation of the IEDC scheme.

One NGO representative from Madhya Pradesh informed that there is lack of consciousness about disability even people do not know about categories of the disability. People believe that this disability is the result of their previous life sin. Lack of qualified professionals is the main hurdle.

One parent of disabled child suggested that Children with Disabilities are not getting proper benefit due to lack of qualified teachers in integrated school.

™ He suggested that parents must be included in the teaching process.

™ There must be some training/ orientation programmes for parents too.

™ Number of vocational courses must be increased.

™ Syllabus must be changed for such type of students.

One NGO representative from Uttar Pradesh pointed out that there must be some more efforts to cope up the problems of these children with special needs. There must be separate curriculum for Children with Disabilities.

Second Session
Second session jointly chaired by Dr. S.K. Prasad and Prof Jayachandran. In this session same discussion of the stakeholders remain continued

One school teacher from Uttar Pradesh highlighted some problems. The respondent also echoed the same problem of insufficient fund from the scheme. It was felt by the respondent that there should be some provision for the Children with Disabilities that they must go to integrated school after studying in special schools, only then they can grasp the lessons effectively and rapidly.

One NGO representative from Uttar Pradesh pointed out that parents of the Children with Disabilities do not want to send their children to the school. The respondent felt that disabled students who are studying in integrated schools learn faster than the special schools.

One expert suggested that quick processing of file is possible if it is forwarded by the ministers or M.P

The expert also explained that sensitization is as important as polio-campaign.

One principal from Mainstream school of Punjab confessed that she did not know about the integrated school before this workshop.

Chairman of the session summarized the activities of the first day workshops and suggested that MHRD should have some clause to identified NGO’s that are working in the area of disability. He also emphasize on the awareness factor which should come from society so everybody must do efforts in this direction.

Second Day

Third Session
Third session started at 9.00 am on 20th March 2005 with the welcome address of the Mr. S. Das. In this session stakeholders from different states shared their views regarding IEDC Scheme.

™ One representative of core committee explained the status of the Gujarat. He told that IEDC scheme running with the help of the other agencies in Gujarat. DIET is also taking keen interest in spreading awareness for integrated education. He informed that NGOs are working efficiently in this field. One of the important achievements of the Gujarat is establishment of the resource centres in each block. These resource rooms are providing all the equipments for all type of Children with Disabilities. These resource centers are running with SSA Programme successfully. Resource persons are covering different blocks. In Gujarat, before this programme student teacher ratio was

50:1 but now the ratio is 12:1. With the help of the DPEP, 700 teachers have trained for these special need children number of orientation programs have increased.

He suggested from Gujarat experience that …..

™ Emphasis must be given on the recognition of the NGO’s efforts.

™ System must have some provision for the integration of the scheme with other programmes.

™ Need is to increase the recruitment of the special teacher.

™ Emphasis must be given for making these children socially acceptable.

Another core committee member told that for the success of the scheme we must give attention to appoint such type of persons who can work in this sphere seriously and responsibly. IEDC resource persons can take help from the scout guide and from NSS volunteers too.

He also suggested that though teaching learning material is important for resource room but in spite of giving too much emphasis on more grant, we must utilized available resources mechanically/ economically.

™ Importance must be given to the attitude and aptitude. ™Gujarat model is the well accepted model other states must take example from this

model ™Training/orientation programme must be conducted regularly. ™Collaborative efforts between Govt./ private institution can pave the way of success. ™Society must also include in the training programmes.

Fourth Session
After a short break fourth session started at 11.30. All stakeholders were divided into four groups to discuss on the key issues of the workshop. After half an hour discussion representatives of different groups presented their points before the panelist and participants. Various questions raised by the participants during the presentation of the `group discussion. The suggestions of the four group discussion are documented at the end of the report.

™ Participant asked about the reasons behind giving inadequate information by the authorities.

™ It is felt by the participants that there is a big problem to implement the rules.

™ IEDC scheme is running in some places only on paper. So this type of practices must be stopped.

™ One of the participants remarked that due to entrance exams in every school, mentally retarded children are not getting admission. So, some provision must be there for M.R. category children.

™ Acceptance in society is very important for the real growth of these Children with Disabilities.

Resource persons summarized the session
Prof. Jayachandran analyzed this situation and suggested that until society will not give due respect to the disabled person the situation can never be changed.

This discussion shows that goal of integrated education is achievable.

  • It is needed to identify villages/Blocks with maximum disability rate highest dropout rate and lowest enrolment rate.
  • Programme must be conducted with the help of local Panchayat and NGO’s.
  • Teachers who are working in IEDC schemes should be placed in the usual pay scale as per their qualification they must be given increments.
  • Quality of education in government schools should be improved through increased investment in educational infrastructures.
  • Measure should be taken to strengthen institutional capabilities.
  • Organizational structure should be thoroughly examined and made more effective and supportive of educational activities and responsive to the needs of the Children with Disabilities.
  • A team of experts should be appointed to monitor progress of the disabled pupil in every school.
  • There must be inter school visit of the staffs and students.
  • Integrated school should establish a network to obtain feed back.
It may be reiterated that integrated system alone will promote an egalitarian and integrated society. There is need for determined vigorous action in this field. This is not the responsibility of the govt. alone. The community is to share it whole heartedly in the best tradition of our ancient legacy radical reforms are not the outcome of one below. They are calumniation of a process.

™ There must be a provision for orientation programmes for the teachers /parents for effective implementation of the scheme.

™ There must be some assessment programme for evaluation of the progress of the scheme.

™ There must be a provision of the accountability of concerned official. If the CWDs are not getting benefit out of the scheme in a specific locality then responsibility should go to the concerned educational administrator.

™ Few programmes for social awareness must be organized.

™ There must be some homogeneity in implementation of the scheme.

™ There should be a coordination between Central and state Government agencies involved in the scheme so that fund can be received on time.

™ There should be a provision for appointing few more supervisors or coordinators for evaluating the teachers work.

™ Proposal must reach on time to the Central Government so that fund can be received without delay.

™ There are number of other administrative expenses, such as secretarial cost, computation charges and many other such expenses. Hence, there should be a provision in the scheme under head of administrative expenses or contingency expenses.

™ There should be provision in the budget for one supervisor for the regular monitoring of the teachers who are working in different areas, which is very important to judge the real progress of the Children with Disabilities.

™ Some budget could be proposed for the extra-curricular activities for the children such as picnic, music, yoga and other such activities.

Group B
™ There is lack of awareness at every District, Block and Panchayat level.

™ This was the common complaint from every state for not having funds on time.

™ IEDC cell must be established in every state at all level, Distrct/ Block/ Panchayat level.

™ IEDC is the effective scheme so there is a great need to popularize it for taking maximum benefits.

™ There must be regular meetings for the people of every community /Parents to make them aware about integrated education.

™ More campaign programme must be organized.

™ There is a lack of support/ and coordination between central and state agencies.

™ NGOs, efforts must be recognized.

™ For increasing awareness/ confidence and living skills, few regular orientation programmes must be organized.

™ Community must have positive thinking and we must optimally utilize our limited resources.

™ There must be provision for free and compulsory education for these children with special needs.

™ It is the great need of the hour to maintain dialogue (communication) between community and parents.

™ In remote areas untrained teachers are handling all type of disability problems. So, for proper and efficient handling of the disability related problems there must be some orientation programme for these teachers.

™ There must be provision for extra perks for these teachers for sustaining enthusiasm.

™ There must be provision for updating resource room with latest equipments.

™ There must be clear instructions for integrated schools.

™ Regular assessment programme must be compulsory for the success of the programme in every state.

™ There must be some slabs for assessing programme.

™ There must be a provision for proper transport facilities for the disable children.


™ Orientation programme for Educational Administrators must be organized frequently by the National Agencies like NCERT, NIEPA and RCI. Other representatives should be the delegate for attending the programme.
™ Multiplicity of channels in state department for this scheme should be minimized and networking should be there for proper implementation.
™ A separate IEDC cell should be established in each state/UT /District /Block/Taluka level for effective implementation and monitoring of the scheme.
™ Wide publicity of the provisions of the IEDC scheme is must.
™ There must be a clear instruction to the HOD of the education for the admission of the children with special needs.
™ Quality of the education must be improved in the Integrated Schools
™ Assessment of the Children with Disabilities must be done at entry level.
™ Community participation and awareness programmes are the need of the hour.
™ Adequate support should be added in orientation/training for all the teachers
™ One resource room is must at cluster level.
™ Parents face attitudinal barriers of school authorities. So, proper initiatives should be taken to remove this barrier.
™ Parents are satisfied with IEDC scheme but not with its implementation.
™ There must be a provision of scholarship for Children with Disabilities for achieving excellence in academics or in co curricular activities.


™Social animator is important for guiding the common people. ™Proper planning for execution of the scheme is necessary ™There must be a proper training for the teachers.™Departmental orientation is necessary. ™ For spreading of awareness there must be proper propaganda. ™There must be proper orientation programme for the parents too. The parents and local

bodies should be aware of the benefits given by the govt. through camps, print and electronic media.

™ Community awareness is very weak so there must be few sensitization programmes for the community awareness.

™ Schools must provide extra educational services to these children with special needs.

™ There must be extra provision of funds for the development of the infrastructure.

™ Focus must be given to psychological problems too.

™ Grant must be provided on time so that funds can be utilized properly.

™ The educators should emphasis on quality

™ Students with good result must be chosen for scholarships.

™ The crying need of the hour is to establish Resource Centers in every corner of the country.

™ It is needed to socialize the issues and make it mass movement.

™ Provide responsible adequate amenities in all type of schools.

™ The school governing boards and RCI’s Resource Persons should comprise of parents and academicians so that the school authorities could help the institution to its maximum potential. It is needed to relate the system more closely to the life of the people

™ The school should provide extra time to the teacher for proper certification of the disabled students and educational devices should be provided.

™ The fossilized learning method keeps away many children from the school.

™ Lack of teaching aids, unqualified teachers, irrelevance of Education, heavy syllabus and some time unfair treatment of children have proved to be the root cause of the prior enrolment.

™ There are some problems of school administration. These include the process of administration, finance, reward structure, lack of facilities.

™ Teacher training is not up to the mark as many trained teacher are not able to handle children with special needs.

™ Few teachers cannot cope up the problems of these Children with Disabilities who have emotional and behavioral difficulties.




First Session
Key Issues
  • Awareness of the Educational Administrators about the number of Schools implementing IEDC scheme under their jurisdiction.
  • Main Administrative constraints for proper Implementation of the scheme.
  • How to encourage the admission of more and more Children with Disabilities in Integrated Schools?
  • Ideal Steps for ensuring certification of Children with Disabilities.
  • Opinion on the effectiveness of Integrated schools in implementing the IEDC Scheme.
  • Opinion on community Participation for encouraging integrated education in own area.
Second Session
Key Issues
  • Is the support provided by the school adequate? If not what support school should provide?
  • What are the difficulties parents faced while sending a child to an integrated school?
  • Whether parents are satisfied with the IEDC Scheme or not?
  • Whether incentives provided to the CWDs are enough or not? If not, what more incentives scheme should give?
  • Whether parents are satisfied with the school’s attitude towards the disabled child or not?
  • Whether parents are getting any moral support or neglected by the School and community?
  • Whether community aware and support the integrated school or not?
  • Opinion on the role played by the IEDC Scheme in bringing change in the lives of the children with disabilities.
  • What should be the role of the community in proper implementation of the IEDC Scheme?
  • Should education be made free and compulsory for the children with disabilities?

Third Session
Key Issues
  • What should be the role of resource teachers?
  • Are the principal of the special schools sending any children to the integrated school?
  • What are the pit falls of the IEDC scheme being felt by the Principals of the integrated schools?
  • What problems are being faced by the principals while running the integrated school?
  • Are the special schools providing any kind of resource support to the integrated schools?
  • Is there regular interaction between regular and resource teacher for teaching strategy in integrated school?
  • Whether integrated schools are visited by the state authorities regularly or not?
  • How the evaluation system should be adopted to the needs of children with disabilities?
  • Does the school administration face difficulties because of the presence of Children with Disabilities?
  • Are the salaries of resource teachers paid in time? If not, why?
  • Are the grants of central government received in time? If not, what changes should be there in payment system?
  • Is there any interaction between integrated and special school? Is it a good idea for the two systems to interact regularly? If so, then how?
  • How should the scheme be expanded? What convergence should be established between IEDC and SSA?
  • Should the education be made free and compulsory for the children with disabilities?




Workshop Udaipur
19th and 20th March, 2004
Sr.No. Name of the Participant Address and Designations
1 P.C.Tivari Headmaster Sec.School, Kaydaidnohar Chhavada Baran-2410550
2 M.K.Parik Higher Secondary School, Chhavada, Baran, Rajasthan
3 S.M.Khan Project Officer PIED, Chhavada, Baran-220435
4 P.N.Sharma PIED Chhavada,NGO Represtative Chhavada, Baran-222405
5 G.L.Shrma Resource Teacher Govt. Secondary School Kaydaidnohar, Baran-222852
6 Sonia D.Desai Deepkunj Society , NGO Paldi, Ahmadabad, Gujarat
7 Mona Couliraiter 14-Bashaporwad Society, Paldi, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
8 Mr.A.J.Molik Rachna Vidhyalaya Sharanpur Nasik -2, Maharashtra
9 R.K.Shidey Coordinator IED Cell, Director of Principal, Education, Puna, Maharashtra
10 N.K.Raja Principal Govt. Upper School Kedye Nagar, Balaji Nagar, Pali
11 M.B.Kulkarni Headmaster Chhatrapati Shivaji Hezpur Sagar , Nanded
12 B.B.Joshi House Master, Sharada Nagar, Sagaroli
13 V.J.Bhange H.M., Abhinav Primary School Barasi, Solapur
14 S.S.Pathan Yashoda Shiksha Prasarak Mardal Barsi, Solpur
15 F.M.Mulla Yashoda Shiksha Prasarak Mandal Barsi, Solpur
16 Vinod Jadhav Field Investigator, P-66,MIDC, NAB, Satpur Nashik-7,Maharashtra
17 Pragnesh Patel V.S.Gandhi Charitable Turst, V.S.Gandhi Circle


Kapadwanj, Gujarat
18 Jhala Manhar B. V.S.Gandhi Charitable Turst, V.S.Gandhi Circle Kapadwanj, Gujarat
19 Raval Vimla Ban Vishnu Bai V.S.Gandhi Charitable Turst, V.S.Gandhi Circle Kapadwanj, Gujarat
20 Raval Bhudha Bhai V.S.Gandhi Charitable Turst, V.S.Gandhi Circle Kapadwanj, Gujarat
21 Pramod Gupta Field Investigator, Blind People Association Surdas Marg, Vastrapur Vastrapur, Ahmadabad, Gujarat
22 Arindam Roy BPAKCRC, NGO Bhuj, Gujarat
23 Saurav Gupta Navchetan Andhjan Mondal Opp.Kutch Dairy, Bhuj, Gujarat
24 Rajendra Singh 680/24 Ramganj, Ajmer, Rajasthan
25 Himanshu Sompura Navchetan Andhjan Mondal Opp.Kutch Dairy, Bhuj ,Gujarat
26 Smt.Sarita Rao Subhash Nagar, Ajmer, Rajasthan
27 Santosh Shelwal Megwanshi Mohalla, TopdaraAjmer,Rajasthan
28 Prem Devi Megwanshi Mohalla, Topdara Ajmer,Rajasthan
29 Genna Devi Megwanshi Mohalla, Topdara Ajmer, Rajasthan
30 Meera Devi Megwanshi Mohalla, Topdara Ajmer , Rajasthan
31 Kamle Rajeev Sagaroli,Baloli, Nanded, Maharashtra
32 Jhanvi Bhatia 6-Pratishtha Apartment Behind Suridha Shoping Centre Paldi Ahmadabad, Gujarat
33 Ravi Singh Bangad Sr.Secondary School Pali,Gujarat
34 Ghanshyam Lal Mali Govt. Upper Primary School Bhatakara, Sirohi, Rajashtan
35 Mrs.Kuki Devi Govt. Upper Primary School Bhatakara, Sirohi, Rajashtan
36 Dr.Ramesh Pareek Joint Director DPEP, Jaipur Rajasthan
37 Sunita Bhandairi Secretary Prayas Sansthan
38 Miss.Krishna Gaur Jai Bhrat Sarv Kalayan Nayash, Field Investigator Jodhpur, Rajasthan
39 Dr.G.M.Singhvi Jai Bhrat Sarv Kalayan Nayash Jodhpur, Rajasthan
40 Gautam Chand Golechha 149 Manji Halta B-2 Rel Paota, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
41 Dr.Siretkha Hinger Resorach Off SIRT Udaipur, Rajasthan
42 Anujgulecha 149 Manji Halta B-2 Rel Paota, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
43 Subheshree Inside Talriqute, Near Balswer school Udaipur,Rajasthan
44 Raja Bhandari Field Investigator, Rajasthan

Workshop Bangalore

18th and 19th December,2004
Sr.No. Name of the Participants Designation and Address
1 L.Shanmugam Director, NGO, Tamil Nadu
2 Hasan Mohiddin SSA, DPI, CPI office, Bangalore, Karnataka
3 Appu Rao M.S. Coordinator, NGO, Malur, Kolar District
4 S. Thambatti Deputy Director IEDC Cell, Kerala
5 T.V.Suguna IED Coordinator, SSA Tamil Nadu
6 A.Jestin Headmaster, Negercoil, Kannya Kumari, Tamil Nadu
7 G.B.Ramappa Project Officer, NGO, Bangalore, Karnataka
8 R. Krishnarajan Secretary, NGO, Pondichery
9 D.Christopher Resource Teacher, Karur, Tamil Nadu
10 K.Ananda Block Education Officer Mangalore, Karnataka
11 V.Basavraj Wadhiar Headmaster, HPS, Kerala
12 Williams Andrewj Assistant Teacher, Sent Vicent School Palai, Karnataka
13 Mullin Giri President,NGO, K.Trust, Karut, Tamil Nadu
14 A.M.Nagaraja Senior Teacher, Chigateri, Harapurahalli, Bangalore
15 J.Balihalli Speech Therapist, J. S. School Bangalore, Karnataka
16 V.G.Hymavathi Assistant Education Officer Thiruvanthapuram, Kerala
17 R.kuppammal Head Misteress, Govt. Sr. Secondary School, Tamil Nadu
18 G.Beulah Special Teacher Girls Hr. Secondary School, Tamil Nadu
19 K.Prameswaram Principal of Special School, Karrur, Tamil Nadu

20 T.K.Devarajan Headmaster, Mallapuram, Kerala
21 E.A.Joseph Head Master Pala, Kottayam, Kerala
22 Gangappa Block Education Officer, Gangabati, Koppal, Karnataka
23 P.Murugesan Field Investigator, Tamil Nadu
24 M.A.Parthipan Field Investigator, Tamil Nadu
25 L.Shivashankar Representative of Block Education Officer Pavagoda
26 Dr.P.E.S.Kartha Field Investigator, Karnataka
27 K.V.N.Rao Coordinator, Bangalor,Karnataka
28 K.Bhaggamma Parents of Disabled Chilren, Bangalor, Karnataka
29 M.Radha.Reedy Deputy Director, IEDC Cell, Andhra Pradesh
30 G.Arivoli Joint Director, IED Cell, SSA,Tamil Nadu
31 S.Anbalagan Joint Director, IED Cell, Tamil Nadu
32 V.Rammohar Rao Special Educator, IED Cell, Andhra Pradesh
33 Shiva Prakesh.B Special Educator, Karnataka
34 Mr.Omana Principal, Special School, Kannur ,Kerala
35 S.K.Prasad Resource Person Senior Programme officer, IGNOU, New Delhi
36 Dr.Indumati Rao Regional, Coordiantor CBR Network, (South Asia) Bangalore

Workshop Kolkata

5th and 6th Feb. 2005
Sl.No. Name of the Applicant Designation and Address
1. P.K.Goswami Special Secretary Secondary Education Dept. Government of West Bengal
2. Ajaya Kr. Samal President, NGO Saheed Yuba Sangha, Bolagarh ,Khurda, Orissa
3. Nilay Roy State Coordinator IEDC Cell School Education Deptt/ Government of West Bengal
4. Asrof Ali School Teacher Mushrdabad ,West Bengal
5. Soumee Chakroborty Field Investigator Shelter, West Bengal
6. T.Vero Sepcial Educotor, Department of School Education , Nagaland
7. Dr.Monoj Das Resource Person Director, SOS Children Village of India
8. Baliram Prasad Representative of IEDC Cell SCERT Patana, Bihar
9. Dr.S.K.Prasad Program Officer, Resource Person IGNOU, Delhi
10. Somnath Munshi Director NGO,Kolkata
11. Swadesh K. Rath Field Investigator, Orissa
12. Mohan Das President , NGO Balali Sports Assocation Abahan Road, Pathsala, Barpeta, Assam
13. Sukarta Goswami IED Coordinator SSA, West Bangal
14. P.Das President, Assam
15. K.B.Charyya NGO, IED Coordinator
16. Rajib. S. Secretary, NGO

17. Prasamta Goswami Headmaster, Alampur Primary School Sonamikhi, Bankura, West Bengal
18. M.Mukherjee Director, NGO Kendnadihi Bikash Society Bankura,West Bengal
19. Dr. Su nil Kumar President, NGO Adarsh Viklang Sansthan, Rosera, Samastipur, Bihar
20. M.S.Sadigur Rahm. Project Director, Navgaon, Assam
21. Paresh C.Dani NGO, Representative J M PS, Assam
22. S.U.Ahmed Secretary, NGO Socio-Economic Development Organisation Rajgakh Road 5th by lane Kamrup, Guwahati, Assam
23. Sanjay Kumar Assistant
24. Sailen Chowdhury NGO Representative, Paschim Banga Rajya Pratibandhi, Sammelani, West Bengal
25. Sufiar Rehman ADPO, DPEP and SSA Birbhum, West Bengal
26. J.Dasgupta District School Inspector, West Bengal
27. Rabindra Bhattacharjee Headmaster, Ram Krishna Siksha Pratisthan, Gobindapur,Kailashahar, North Tripura
28. Hari Prakesh Kumar Field Investigator, JMI, Bihar

Workshop Delhi
5th and 6th Feb. 2005
Sr.No. Name Address and Designations
1 Om Parkash Resource Teacher IEDC, Govt.Sr..Secondary.School Bawal (Rewari) Haryana
2 Sh.R.K. Tripathi Psychologist Indian Red Cross Society, Dharamashala, Kangra (Himchal Pradesh)
3 Gopal Krishna Agarwal NGO, Representative S.Y.S.Samiti, Pandey Bazar Basti (Uttar Pradesh)
4 Dr. S.K. Prasad Core Committee Member Senior Prigramme Officer, IGNOU, New Delhi
5 Mr.D.K.Kale Principal Govt. Exellence H.Sr.School Kothi Bazar, Betul (MP)
6 Sh. Sant Ram Shukla Director, NGO Yuva Viklang A.D.B.K.S. S.K.B.,Koorebhar,Sultanpur,UttarPardesh
7 Harsh Kumar Gupta Field investigator Delhi
8 Ishwar Singh Panchal Jila Upadhaksh Congress Committee Community LeaderJulana, Jind (Haryana)
9 Dr. Anil Das Researcher Human Development Society, Delhi
10 Smt.Arti Dutt Director and Principal,NGO School for Mentally handicap Sadar Bazar, Hoshangabad, MP
11 Neena Alhgh State Coordinator IEDC Scheme, South Distriet, New Delhi
12 Sanjay Vanjani Accounts Officer, Parent of Disabled Children D-584, 2nd Floor,C.R.Park New.Delhi
13 Pramod Kumar Gupta Blind People Association, Representative of Core Committee, Ahemdbad, Gujrat
14 Lakhan Singh Secretary, NGO B-13 Gura Bazar, Raibereli, Uttar Pradesh
15 Prof. P.Jeyachandran Member of Core- Committee Vijay human Services # 4, Lakshmipuram, 3rd Street, Royapeetah, Chennai
16 Rajesh Goswami Field Investigator, Bhopal, MP
17 S.K.Gupta Districts Co-ordinator, IEDC scheme C-723,D.A.Flots Timar Pur, Delhi –54

18 Sister Jyotika Director, NGO J.J.School for the Blind Varnasi Sadar, Uttar Pradesh
19 Gulshan Rai Distriect Coordinator IEDC Schemes, Distt-East Delhi
20 Amita Dubey Genl. Secretray, NGO National Association for the Blind UP State Branch, 1710-1st Floor Lekhraj Dollar, Indira Nagar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
21 B.R.Thakur Depty Director, State IEDC Cell, Secondary Education Nigam Vihar, Shimla, Himchal Pradesh
22 Bharat Bhushan Walia Resource Teacher IEDC Scheme Govt.Sr.Secondary School Narnual, Haryana
23 Raj Bala Garg Govt.Girl Sr.Secondary School Kharkoda (Sonipat), Haryana
24 Dr. Manoj Das IEDC Project Consultant A/403,Saheta Apartment Plot No.30, Sec-4
25 Rajni Disabled Child 6/6 Ramesh Nagar New Delhi-15
26 Jitender Singh Field investgator, Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh)
27 Bhim Sain Senior Teacher Govt.Sr.Secondary School Kalanour Rohtak (Haryana)
28 Aisha Khen Secretray, NGO 142/A,H.No.20N,Uddin Colony Bhopal, MP
29 Dr.ChhamaSrivaslava Principal Asha Jyoti School for MR E-27, Amava Road Raiberali (Uttar Pradesh)
30 Sh. Jagdish Sharma Principal Govt. Nursery Middle School harmshala, Kangra (Himchal Pradesh)
31 Neelam Bhagat Principal Govt.Girl Sec.School The Mall, Amritsar (Punjab)
32 Nand Kishore Director and Principal, NGO School for Mentally handicap Sadar Bazar, Hoshangabad, MP

(RCI prepared this manual for the participants of the Stakeholders’ Workshop)


Educational Programmes Integrated Education for Disabled Children
Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC) is a centrally sponsored scheme. This scheme was launched in 1974 by the then Department of Social welfare. The scheme has however transferred to the department of education since 1982. The main purpose of this scheme is to provide educational opportunities for the disabled children in common schools and to facilitate their retention in the school system. The disabled children who are placed in special schools should also be integrated in common schools once they acquire the communication and daily living skills at the functional level. Different types of disabled children like locomotor handicaps, mildly and moderately hearing impaired, partially sighted children, mentally handicapped-educable group, children with multiple disabilities and children with learning disabilities are covered under this scheme.

The Handicapped children are provided the following allowances and facilities under this scheme:
  • Books and stationery allowance of Rs. 400 per annum
  • Uniform allowance of Rs.50 per annum
  • Transport allowance of Rs. 50 per month
  • Reader allowance of Rs.50 per month in case of blind children
  • Escort allowance for severely handicapped children Rs. 75 per month
  • Actual cost of equipment subject to a maximum Rs.2000 for a period of 5 years
In case of severely orthopaedically handicapped children it may be necessary to allowed one attendant for 10 children in a school.

There is a provision to recruit special teacher for disabled children under this scheme. If special teacher is not available then general teachers should be trained through orientation programme.

There should be a Resource room having all the essential equipments, learning aids and materials may be provided for a cluster of schools implementing the scheme of integrated education.

It is necessary to remove architectural barriers or to modify existing architectural facilities so as to provide easier access to orthopaedically disabled children to the school premises.

Education programme in special schools
This is a programme of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. Children with severe multiple disabilities who have difficulty to attend regular schools avail special schools. Most of the special schools are located in urban areas and are being run by the voluntary organizations. Most of these are residential schools and boarding-lodging and other services are provided free of cost. At present more than 3000 special schools for the disabled are functioning in the country. Forty percent disability is the benchmark for identification and certification for admission in special schools.

National Institute of Open schooling (NIOS)
The National Institute of Open schooling was established as an autonomous registered society in 1989 with the mission to provide education through an open learning system at the school stage as an alternative to the formal system for school dropouts, girls, mentally/physically disabled etc. The NIOS also provides the programme of basic Education for Universal Elementary Education, which includes programme for disabled children. At present there are 1459 NIOS study centres in India. It offers open basic education, secondary, senior secondary and vocational courses. National Institute of Open Schooling has accredited different institutions for the education of the disabled.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalize elementary education by community-ownership of the school system. It is a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children, through provision of community-owned quality education in a mission mode.

  • A programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education.
  • A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country.
  • An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education.
    • An effort at effectively involving the Panchayati Raj Institutions, School Management Committees, Village and Urban Slum level Education Committees, Parents' Teachers'
    • Associations, Mother Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous Councils and other grass root level structures in the management of elementary schools.
  • An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the country.
  • A partnership between the Central, State and the local government.
  • An opportunity for States to develop their own vision of elementary education
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. There is also another goal to bridge social, regional and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in the management of schools.

  • All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, ' Back-to-School' camp by 2003;
  • All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007
  • All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010
  • Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme aims at mainstreaming gender concerns and education of SC/ST children. It also intervenes in tribal areas and taking care of early childhood education. SSA provides fund for urban deprived children. It has also taken care of children with special needs.


SSA will ensure that every child with special needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disability, is provided education in an appropriate environment. SSA will adopt ‘zero rejection’ policy so that no child is left out of the education system. The thrust of SSA will be on providing integrated and inclusive education to all children with special needs in general schools. It will also support a wide range of approaches, options and strategies for education of children with special needs. Prime activities of this programme are:

  1. Early detection and identification: A concerted drive to detect children with special needs at an early age should be undertaken through PHCs, ICDS, ECCE centres and other school readiness programmes. Identification of children with special needs should become an integral part of the micro-planning and household surveys.
  2. Assessment: Functional and formal assessment of each identified child should be carried out. A team should be constituted at every block to carry out this assessment and recommend most appropriate placement for every child with special needs.
  3. Educational Placement: As far as possible, every child with special needs should be placed in regular schools, with needed support services.
  4. Aids and appliances: All children requiring assistive devices should be provided with aids and appliances, obtained as far as possible through convergence with the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, State Welfare Departments, National Institutions or NGOs.
  5. Support services: Support services like physical access, resource rooms at cluster level, special equipment, reading material, special educational techniques, remedial teaching, curricular adaptation or adapted teaching strategies could be provided.
  6. Teacher training: Intensive teacher training should be undertaken to sensitize regular teachers on effective classroom management of children with special needs. This training should be recurrent at block/cluster levels and integrated with the on-going in-service teacher training schedules in SSA. All training modules at SCERT, DIET and BRC level should include a suitable component on education of children with special needs.
  7. Resource support: Resource support could be given by teachers working in special schools. Where necessary, specially trained resource teachers should be appointed,

    particularly for teaching special skills to children with special needs. Wherever this option is not feasible, long term training of regular teachers should be undertaken.
  8. Individualized Educational Plan (IEP): An IEP should be prepared by the teacher for every child with special needs in consultation with parents and experts. Its implementation should be monitored from time to time. The programme should test the effectiveness of various strategies and models by measuring the learning achievement of children with special needs periodically, after developing indicators.
  9. Parental training and community mobilization: Parents of children with disabilities should receive counselling and training on how to bring them up and teach them basic survival skills. Strong advocacy and awareness programmes should form a part of strategy to educate every child with special needs. A component on disability should be included in all the modules for parents, VEC and community.
  10. Planning and management: Resource groups should be constituted at state, district levels to undertake effective planning and management of the programmes in collaboration with PRIs and NGOs. An apex level resource group at the national level to provide guidance, technical and academic support to children with special needs under SSA may be constituted.
  11. Strengthening of special schools: Wherever necessary, special schools may be strengthened to obtain their resource support, in convergence with departments and agencies working in that area.
  12. Removal of Architectural barriers: Architectural barriers in schools will be removed for easy access. Efforts will be taken to provide disable-friendly facilities in schools and educational institutions. Development of innovative designs for schools to provide an enabling environment for children with special needs should also be a part of the programme.
  13. Research: SSA will encourage research in all areas of education of children with special needs including research for designing and developing new assistive devices, teaching aids special teaching material and other items necessary to give a child with disability equal opportunities in education.

  14. Monitoring and evaluation: On-going monitoring and evaluation should be carried out to refine the programme from time to time. For this, appropriate monitoring mechanisms should be devised at every level and field tested at regular intervals.
  15. Girls with disabilities: Special emphasis must be given to education of girls with disabilities.
All activities, interventions and approaches in the area of education for children with special needs will be implemented in convergence with existing scheme like Assistance to Disabled Persons for purchase/fittings of Aids/Appliances (ADIP), Integrated Education of the Disabled Children (IEDC) and in coordination with the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, State Department of Welfare, National Institutions and NGOs.

Expenditure up to Rs. 1200 per disabled child could be incurred in a financial year to meet the special learning needs of such children. The ceiling on expenditure per disabled child will apply at the district level.

Major Acts for the Persons with Disabilities
The Person with Disabilities (Equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation) Act, 1995.

This is an act to give effect to the proclamation on the full participation and equality of the people with disabilities in the Asian and Pacific Region. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific adopted this proclamation in a meeting held at Beijing in 1992. India was one of the signatories to that proclamation. This act extends to the whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

There shall be a central co-ordination committee which may exercise the powers conferred on, and perform the function assigned to it. There should be a central executive committee which would function as the executive body of central co-ordination committee.


To review and co-ordinate all the departments of Governments and other government and non governmental organization which are dealing with matters with relating to persons with disabilities.

To develop a national policy to address issues faced by persons with disabilities.

To give advice to the central government on the formulation of policies, programmes, legislation and projects with respect to disability.

To review in consultation with the donor agencies and their funding policies from the perspective of their impact on persons with disabilities.

To take such other steps to ensure barrier free environment in public places, work places, public utilities, schools and other institutions.

To monitor and evaluate the impact of policies and programmes designed for achieving equality and full participation of persons with disabilities.

The State co ordination committee:
There shall be a state co-ordination committee in each and every state. According to the PWD act (1995) the function of state co-ordination committee shall be to serve as the state focal point on disability matters and facilitate continuous evolution of a comprehensive policy towards solving the problem faced by the person with disabilities. The state should constitute a state executive committee which will control the activities of state co-ordination committee.

There are some guidelines for the appropriate government (in relation to the central government or any establishment wholly or substantially financed by the government) regarding prevention and early detection of disabilities, education and employment of the person with disabilities.

Appropriate government and local authorities should ensure that every child with a disability has

access to free education in an appropriate environment till he attains the age of eighteen year. Appropriate government and local authorities have to make schemes and programmes for non formal education etc.

Appropriate Govt. should encourage research for designing and developing new assistive devices, teaching aids etc.

Appropriate government should set up teachers’ training institutions to develop trained

manpower for schools and integrated schools for children with disabilities. Appropriate govt. should prepare a comprehensive education scheme providing for transportfacilities supply of books etc.

The comprehensive scheme shall make provision for ––
Transport facility to the children with disabilities or in the alternative financial incentives to the parents or guardians to enable their children with disabilities to attend schools. The removal of architectural barriers from schools, colleges or other institutions impartingvocational and professional training.

The supply of Books, uniforms and other materials to the children with disabilities attending school. The grant of scholarships to students with disabilities.

Restructuring of curriculum for the benefit of children with disabilities. Restructuring the curriculum for the benefit of the students with hearing impairment to facilitate them to take only one language as part of their curriculum.

Educational institutions shall provide amanuensis to student with visual handicap.

Prevention and early detection of disabilities: Certain steps are to be taken for the preventionof occurrences and early detection of disabilities.

There are several provisions regarding the employment of the persons with disabilities: Appropriate governments should identify and reserve posts for persons with disabilities. There should be a special employment exchange and various schemes should be there for thepersons with disabilities.

Research and manpower development: Research in different areas of disability sectorshould be promoted and sponsored.

Affirmative action: The appropriate government and local authorities should make schemes to provide aids and appliances to persons with disabilities.

Social security: The appropriate governments and local authorities should undertakerehabilitation schemes, frame an insurance scheme and provide unemployment allowance tothe needed person with disabilities.

Nondiscrimination: Public building, rail compartments, buses, ships and aircrafts will be designed to give easy access to disabled people. All the places of public utility shall be made barrier-free by providing ramps.

The chief commissioner and commissioners for persons with disabilities: Central government may, by notification, appoint a chief commissioner for persons with disabilities.

The Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992 (amended in 2000) This is an act by parliament giving statutory powers to the Rehabilitation Council of India to enforce uniform standardization and regulation of all training policies and programmes in the field of rehabilitation and special education all over the country. The act was amended in 2000 to make it more broad based by including important components such as to promote research in rehabilitation and special education, to ensure maintenance of uniformity in the definition of various disabilities in conformity with the Person with Disabilities Act, 1995.

Function of the Council

The RCI act conferred some powers to the Council. These are as follows:
  • Recognition of qualifications granted by university, etc., for rehabilitation professionals in India.
  • Rights of persons possessing qualifications included in the schedules to be enrolled.
  • Power to require information as to courses of study and examinations.
  • To prescribe the minimum standards of education.
  • To provide privileges of persons who are registered on register.
  • To prescribe professional conduct and removal of names from register.
  • Having power to make rules and regulations.
The National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act, 1999
This act provides for the Constitution of a National Trust for the welfare of persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities. The main objectives of National Trust are to enable, empower and strengthen facilities to provide support to the persons with

disabilities. The Trust deals with problems of persons with disability and facilitates the realization of equal opportunities. This act received the assent of the president on 30th December, 1999 and extends to the whole of India.

Central Government schemes for the persons with Disabilities

National Programme for Rehabilitation of the Persons with Disabilities
National Programme for Rehabilitation of the Persons with Disabilities has been formulated as a State Sector Scheme. Under the scheme there is a provision of two community based rehabilitation workers at block level. The focus at grass root level would be prevention, early detection and information dissemination. Services at district level would be provided through various professionals. Dissemination services at district level would be provided through various professionals like physiotherapist, occupational therapist, Orthotic and Prosthetic Engineers etc. The scheme commenced in 1999-2000. Total 74 districts are expected to be covered in 2000-2001 wherein services will be provided at Gram Panchayat, Block, District and State level.

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment Scheme to promote voluntary action for persons with disabilities:
The scheme of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India, simplifies andfacilitates procedure for easy access to govt. support for NGOs with the aim to widen the scope and range of programmes. The main Objectives are:

  • To ensure effective implementation of the PWD act.
  • To encourage voluntary action and create enabling environment
  • To empower persons with disabilities
  • To enhance educational opportunities at all levels and in all forms.
  • To enlarge the scope of vocational and professional opportunities, income generation and gainful operations.

Disability division of Ministry of Social Justice and empowerment has so far been administering the five grants in aid scheme which are being implemented through NGOs:

  1. The scheme of assistance to organization for the disabled
  2. Scheme of assistance to disabled persons for purchase/fitting of Aids Appliances.
  3. Scheme of assistance to voluntary organizations for the Rehabilitation of Leprosy Cured Persons.
  4. Scheme of assistance to voluntary organizations for special school for Handicapped Children.
  5. Scheme of assistance to organization for persons with cerebral palsy and mental retardation.
Scheme for Assistance to disabled persons for Purchase/Fitting of AIDS/Appliances (ADIP)
The Ministry of social Justice and Empowerment operates the scheme, under which assistance is given to disabled persons for the purchase and fitting of aids and appliances. The object is to promote their physical rehabilitation as well as their capacity to participate in economic activities. Only those aids and appliances which do not cost less than Rs. 25 and not more than Rs. 5000 are covered under this scheme. The persons, earning not more than Rs. 5000 and certified to be disabled by a registered Medical practitioner, are eligible to get assistance from this scheme.

National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation
There are various schemes offered by National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation to empower persons with disabilities.

1. Scheme to Promote Self-Employment amongst persons with mental retardation, Cerebral Palsy and Autism: ``Persons with mental retardation, cerebral palsy or autism may not be eligible to seek loan and enter into a legal contract. In such cases, following categories of persons are eligible for financial assistance from NHFDC: (a) Parents of dependant mentally disabled persons (b) Spouse of dependant of disabled persons. Maximum loan available under this scheme is of Rs. 2.5 lakhs.

  1. Scheme for Loan Assistance for Self Employment in small business: Loan assistance provided under this scheme for self-employment of disabled persons in service sector or for trading activity. Maximum loan available under this scheme of Rs. 2.5 lakhs
  2. Scheme for Loan Assistance for Agriculture Activities: The assistance is provided to disabled persons for various agricultural activities like agricultural production, irrigation, purchase of agricultural machinery, horticulture, sericulture etc. Maximum loan available under this scheme of Rs 5 lakhs.
District Rehabilitation Centre Scheme
The government of India launched the District rehabilitation Centre scheme in early 1985, for providing package of model comprehensive rehabilitation services to the rural disabled. The scheme, at present is operating in 11 different places in different parts of the country. The services provided in this scheme are Prevention of early detection, medical intervention and surgical correction, fitment of artificial aids and appliances, Therapeutical Services , Provision of educational services in special and integrated schemes, Provision of self employment opportunities and bank loans, establishing a meaningful linkage with existing govt. schemes, Creation of awareness and involvement of community and family counselling.

There are some other schemes also for the persons with disabilities. These are Scheme for scholarship to the Disabled Persons, Regional Rehabilitation Training centres, Composite Rehabilitation Services, Regional Rehabilitation Centres for the Spinal Injured.

Last Updated on Thursday, 19 January 2012 09:06

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