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Monday, 05 September 2011 13:17

The study, A Study of Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC) Scheme: Assessment of the Impact

In ancient India the persons with disabilities were given education in the communities in which they lived. in a gurukulum setting with individualized instructions based on the child’s needs and age.

During the colonial period and after, the special schools which were established met only 2% of the population in need. In the post independence years India had around 100 special schools for the persons with disabilities run by the government and non government organizations. These special schools were still inadequate in meeting the needs.

The policies of the Government of India in the last four decades opened up avenues for integrated education, now referred to as inclusive education, to provide education to every child in need.

A National Level Study:

The IEDC Impact Assessment Scheme was a study at national level. It was carried out in the special school,

• 6 geographical areas : South, North, East, North-East, West and Central Three States/ Union Territories were chosen for the study from each zone The selections of the states were based on the rating of the performance in the implementation of the schemes. The selected States/UTs were.

  • South- Tamilnadu, Kerala, Karnataka
  • North-Punjab, Haryana, Himachal
  • East-Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal
  • North-East- Assam, Nagaland, Tripura
  • West – Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
  • Central- Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh.

A two day workshop with 13 qualified professionals as resources to determine the samples to be selected for the study was conducted to plan the road map for the study

The following stakeholders were identified as samples for the study.

  • The Children with disabilities
  • The peer group, the children without disabilities
  • The parents of the children with disabilities
  • The parents of the peer-group mentioned earlier
  • Principals/Headmasters of Integrated Schools
  • Principals/Headmasters of Special Schools
  • NGOs Implementing the IEDC Scheme
  • State Government Officials in Charge of Implementing the IEDC Scheme
  • Principals/Headmasters of Mainstream Schools
  • NGOs working in the field of disability but who do not implement the IEDC Scheme and
  • The Panchayat / Community Leaders.
Sample:

Sample selected for Study: 1458 Sample included for final study: 1240 States Covered: 18 Districts Covered: 89

Sampling Technique:
• Purposive, random, stratified random sampling

Tool:
Guided schedule to evaluate the objectives of the scheme

This tool designed to evaluate the impact of the scheme is comprehensive, gives quantitative picture of the strengths and needs of the scheme and is a criterion – referenced evaluation.

The Tool was field tested for the suitability of the items and the pilot study was carried out.

During the pilot study 10 schedules were designed for the purpose and 1 more added after the pilot study to fulfill the need and following the same procedure as in the initial 10 schedules.

Data Collection:
This was done by qualified and experienced rehabilitation personnel from recognized 18 institutions, one from each state, and 36 in all, working in the field of disability and registered with the RCI

Training for Investigators- Regional

The RCI core project staff, professionals experienced in staff training, management and in implementing programmes related to special education, conducted the workshop at two places, Bhopal and Delhi in two phases.

The workshop training was on data collection methodology, survey for research and interviewing using the structured schedules

Qualified and experienced professionals trained at the workshops conducted the data collection according to specified norms, quantitatively and qualitatively and within the time allotted, 45 days.

The target population: 1458 Collected Sample: 1240

Each State collated the data and presented the same to the head quarters.

The Statistical measures used for the study:

The project team has the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for date entry and analysis as per the recommendation of resource persons and core committee members associated with this project.

Core Committee Meetings:

Four meetings were held to review the data at the RCI headquarters under the chairmanship of the Principal Investigator.

The Objectives of the Study are:

To find out:

  • how successful the integrated schools have been in integrating the eligible children with disabilities from the local communities.
  • the retention strategies adopted by the integrated schools and whether they have been successful or unsuccessful
  • the efficacy of linkage between the integrated schools and the special schools;
  • how much of the facilities for assessment and appropriate placement of the children with disabilities are available in the integrated schools
  • the comparative performance of children with disabilities and the children without disabilities, particularly in the three learning areas: language, mathematics and environment studies
  • how effective the existing support services are and how they can be strengthened;
  • how qualified the resource teachers are and how well the resource support is being provided
  • the attitude of the teachers in the mainstream schools towards children with disabilities
  • whether the required optimum equipment and teaching learning material (TLM) are available in the resource room
  • how the school administration views the presence of children with disabilities in mainstream school
  • the impact of the programme on the community and the attitude of its members towards the children with disabilities; and
  • the process of the implementation of the scheme with special reference to the role of the State Governments and the NGOs.
Experience in the IEDC Scheme:

Heads of integrated schools with less than 5 years experience ,46% More than 15 years experience, 10% . Integrated schools managed by the government, 63%. Co-educational integrated schools, 64% Heads of special schools interviewed, 53.6% females and 46.4% males. Teachers of special schools with MR specialization 39.3% Teachers with OH specialization, 3.5%. Heads of mainstream schools, 64.7% males and 35.3% females.

The Heads of Integrated Schools managed by the government, the Heads of Co –educational Integrated Schools, Heads of Mainstream Schools, constituted nearly 2/3rds of the sample who had at least 15 years of experience in the system of integrating children with disabilities in their respective institutions.

It is justifiable that the percentage of special teachers in the area of orthopedic disability constitutes just 3.5% because the teachers in mainstream schools have over the years learnt to accept and accommodate the children with such disability. With the provision of barrier free environment wherever possible placing the children in mainstream schools has become comparatively easy. The percentage of special teachers in the area of mental retardation is on par with the percentage of the population integrated which fulfills the need for the continued special education in the area.

Children with disabilities in integrated schools, boys: 66.5% .girls:33.5% . Among the disabilities OH :44.9%.The others: VI 26.5%, HI 15.2%, MR 10.6%, and MH 2.4%. Among the children with disabilities males:65.1%. Among the parents of children with disabilities, male parent respondents: 56.7% Among parents of children without disabilities 68% , males .

The ratio of male:female of children with disabilities is a perfect representation of the national and international prevalence. In the sample studied the percentage of children with visual disabilities is high which is inclusive of those with low vision also. Among the parent respondents, parents of children with and without disabilities, it is noticed that the percentage of male respondents is over 50%. There is an indication on the need to reach out to the female respondents also as their responses will be noteworthy being partners in rearing the child with disability.

Majority of community leaders, males 77.1%NGOs receiving grants from the MHRD, 67.7% male represented. NGOs working in the field of disability; male representatives:75.4%

That the majority of the respondents have been males among the community leaders, the NGOs receiving grants and among the NGOs working in the field of disability indicated that the female members are yet To come forward to being communicative and active participants.

Educational Administrators: 78.1%

Acceptance:

The Heads in Integrated schools (70.8%), responded that the level of acceptance of children

with disabilities is Total, that is 100%. A significant impact of the IEDC Scheme.

It is gratifying to register that a large percentage among the Heads of Integrated Schools have a total acceptance of the children with disability in their schools. A clear impact of the Scheme.

77.5% of the respondents preferred the counseling method: for the peer group, the children without disabilities.

This method has proved to be effective in bringing about a positive impact on the peer group in guiding them to accept the children with disabilities

Positive interactions were observed in 89% of children with disabilities having friends without disabilities;71.8% of children with disabilities had been invited by their friends(without disabilities); 80% of children with disabilities had invited their friends(children without disabilities) to visit their homes; 70.2% o f children with disabilities have taken help from their friends(without disabilities) in academic assignments.

These significant interactions have a positive impact on the integrated programme. This result is the best outcome, one of paramount importance, which any study can generate in bringing out crystal clear the unprejudiced attitude of the children without disabilities towards their friends with disabilities. Participation has been in all social situations as well as in academic situations. A clear indication that the child being first a person and then only one with disability.

Discrimination against children with disabilities by teachers:

79% had not been discriminated against – a positive trend.

Discrimination against children with disabilities by children without disabilities: 20.8% . marginal .

This again is a positive outcome that shows a very good situation, teachers being role models, from which children can learn. In a healthy environment such as this the intimacy between the teacher and the students, leads to a conducive environment for learning. The marginal 20.8% of the children without disabilities discriminating against the children with disabilities is only because the latter group has not had the right exposure to learning appropriate social behaviour in an integrated situation and hence face chances of being rejected by the former group. With needed training in socialization this situation can be rectified.

Objection to the presence of children with disabilities by parents of children without disabilities: 12.2% very marginal

With a big majority, 87.8% of parents of children without disabilities having learnt to accept the children with disabilities amongst them it is a clear indication of the impact of the scheme in its implementation over a period of time. With systematic sensitization programmes to bring about positive attitudinal changes, this limited group of respondents will become contributive members.

Presence of children without disabilities, a benefit: Yes, by 48% children with disabilities

This trend should be enhanced because they are their role models.

Awareness: 91.3% of children without disabilities are aware of children with disabilities studying in their schools. Friends: 84.9% of children without disabilities have friends (with disabilities).A very goodsituation.

Interactions between the children with disabilities and those without:

Visits to homes: 63.4% of children without disabilities, had visited the homes of their friends with disabilities ; 58.7% of those without disabilities had invited children with disabilities to their homes.

Acceptance of children with disabilities by:

The children without disabilities: Total-100% Excellent

Parents of children with disabilities: 73.9% concurred with the above statement. – A valid proof .

This is a sign of a conscious awareness among the children without disabilities and hence accepting the children with disabilities and adjusting to their needs in the school and home settings. This will help the children with disabilities in enhancing their self esteem. A fine testimony to their positive social interaction.

Status of the school as an integrated one:

73% of parents of children without disabilities said it did not matter; 15% of parents of children without disabilities considered the integrated schools good for their own children.

A situation of a graduated acceptance, a significant contribution of the IEDC Scheme. The positive attitudes in accepting the children with disabilities in school settings by the heads of integrated schools, parents of children with disabilities and of the parents of children without disabilities, and the children themselves- a litmus test to the success of the scheme.

Retention

24.7% Heads of integrated schools stated that retention of children with disabilities is almost 100%. In 18% schools the retention is 75%. According to the 27.7% heads of the integratedschools retention is below 25%. In 47% schools dropout rate is 25% and 19.1% schools are suffering from 100% dropout.

This information is very significant. However, the 100% dropout in the 19.1% of the schools could be overcome by providing: transportation, escort, financial support and resource room support. This will help the children and their parents to attend school regularly. They will then show better academic performance and will be motivated to stay on in the rolls of the school..

In addition, curriculum modification has been suggested.

The suggestions:

?Mathematics and Science syllabus to be modified for VI Children (13.5 %) ?Timing of examination and duration to be adjusted (13.5%) ?More aids and appliances to be given (11.3%) ?Curriculum should be reduced for the Children with Disabilities: (CWDs) (12.4%) ?Vocational training (6.8%)?Using more visuals in lessons (4.5%) ?Resource support needed (4.4%) ?For HI children emphasis on written and scope for creativity in the examination papers to

be included (1.1%) ?Games, a necessity (1.1%) ?Flexibility in the curriculum (5.6 %)

Curriculum modification may be given a review keeping in mind the needs of the persons with disabilities.

However a more feasible proposition of adopting teaching strategies suited to each disability area may be considered.

Based on the information available from the children with disabilities themselves, their teachers, heads of institutions with integrated education scheme and the parents of children with disabilities, it is urgently needed that a study be made on the areas of weakness in the teaching learning system in schools for children with disabilities and accordingly modify the teaching strategies and use of resource room making it more flexible, and learner friendly. This will be a step towards inclusion.

Support

™ No interaction with Heads of Special Schools by 50% of Heads of Integrated schools.

This aspect which has emerged from the study had not been given due consideration over the years. Yet this is an important link in the making of the Scheme successful.

The Heads of Special Schools prefer to retain their children on their rolls to maintain the strength for possible grant in aids.

However the policy makers should provide clear cut guide lines to the heads of special and integrated schools on the levels at which candidates need to be integrated and at those where candidates could be retained in special schools.

This clear cut indication when applied , will make clear the eligibility criteria for integration. The special schools will then be in a position to serve as resource centers.

™ Support given by special schools to integrated schools is rated good by 66.6% respondents.

The support given by the special schools is to the 50`% o f the Integrated Schools, the heads of which had responded to the Integration Scheme. This type of support should be drawn out from the other 50% of the integrated schools which had not utilized the resources which the special schools can provide. The Scheme will then be more effective.

™ Except 31.5% Heads of Integrated Schools, others informed that special schools in their areas do not send their children with disabilities to their schools for admission.

Analysis of responses of heads of special schools corroborates with the responses in regard to sendingchildren by special schools to integrated schools.

The reason for this on analysis is that the different Ministries and their respective Departments are working in tandem and not in synchronization. It should be clearly defined,

1.what is the area of operations for each departments,

2.what is the required information they should equip themselves with: on the types, levels and nature of disabilities and the choice of the programme whether, it should in integration or in special education

3.the extent of operations defined for coordination and

4.how they should work in concurrence in realizing the objectives of the Scheme.

With these needs met, the problems cited by the heads of special schools on the constraints faced by them in sending children to integrated schools ,the preference of parents for special schools, limitations for the child in the integrated programme scheme, transport problem and lack of adequate resource support in integrated school, will be resolved.

™ 34% of the integrated schools asked for resource support.

This request should be necessarily met because the success of integration depends on this.

Diagnosis

™ According to the Heads of Integrated Schools not all the assessments of persons with disabilities are being carried out as per the provisions of the PWD Act. There is need for greater awareness on the contents and requirements of the PWD Act. Neither the resources are available in all the places, nor is the system in place for diagnosis and certification. If this aspect is looked into motion, ‘zero’ rejection will become a reality.

™ Very low level of participation of the community with the integrated schools as 59% of the community leaders have not been consulted by the Heads of Integrated Schools for identifying children with disabilities in their localities.

The attitudes of the community leaders, that of the parents of children with disabilities and those of children without disabilities have all been positive. If in spite of such a healthy situation, the there is a communication gap between the Heads of integrated Schools and the community leaders in identifying children with disabilities in their localities only shows that mechanism has failed in its exploitation of such a good will so readily available

™ Multiple methods are followed by the NGOs for identification of disabilities.

This assures better and accurate identification and diagnosis and hence the possibility of a more effective integration.

™ 87.1 % of respondents stated that they depended on medical examination for assessment of disability.

This displays the confidence of the public in the medical professionals and this also indicates their easier accessibility to them. This situation can be well utilized in bringing the rest of the population also to enjoy the benefits .

™ Assessment of disability was done by more than 87% NGOs as per the PWD Act.

In spite of the limitations in the availability of the required infrastructure for assessment this is a good trend in the NGOs in making a serious attempt to follow the tenets of the PWD Act .

Attendance:

™ 59.6% Heads of Integrated schools considered classroom attendance of children with disabilities as ‘good’ in comparison to the attendance by children without disabilities.

It is ‘good’ because it has helped the parents of children with disabilities in gaining their self confidence to go back to work while the children were being looked after in the school. At the same time the children without disabilities being absent from school more often indicates that the children are wantonly missing schools or are being exploited for labour during the school hours. Providing suitable means of transport will improve the attendance.

™ 48.3% heads of integrated schools rated the performance of children with disabilities as ‘average’.

This is understandable because of inadequate early intervention and lack of resource support.

Preparation:

™Preparatory services for integration of children with disabilities in integrated schools: only in 52.8% schools. ™Orientation training to children with disabilities: Need for provision : in 46.1% of the schools.

™Nearly half of the integrated schools, in the opinion of children with disabilities, do not provide school-readiness training to children with disabilities. ™Pre-integration training for children with disabilities, in the opinion of the parents of children with disabilities , is not adequate at present.

This situation needs to be strengthened with adequate early intervention services. Studies show that with systematic programming in early intervention children with disabilities perform better in academics, adjust well with peers and do not drop out from schools. Preparing the children with disabilities for school readiness must be strengthened. Transition from special school to integrated school should be included

as part of the preparedness programme.

™Attention given to the support services for children with disabilities,.

50% of Heads of Integrated Schools gave average and poor rating to the present availability of support services

With available funding the support services could be strengthened and more services be made available. The support services given under the IEDC scheme must be enhanced..

™ 48.6% children with disabilities do not at all visit resource rooms, 19.6% visit only occasionally.

The resource should be set up in such a way that it is inviting for the children as well as the teachers to use it fully. The education programme should be such that the resources matching it should need based and age appropriate.

™Orientation training for parents of children without disabilities as well as for the children with disabilities themselves not satisfactory. Nearly 50% of the parents and children with disabilities.

The parents themselves have expressed the need for such a training, orienting them to the philosophy and benefits of integration. This is a felt need which should be given attention particularly because the study has shown clearly that the parents have a positive attitude towards integration.

™Transport problem faced by 40.8% of parents of children with disabilities. 20.5% of the community rated as good. The rest rated as or poor.

What is needed is a community sensistation programme in understanding the need for accommodating and guiding the children with disabilities in managing the problems in travelling.

™ The integrated schools with are not barrier free are more in number than the ones which are barrier free.

This indicates that there is an urgent need for conscious barrier free environment being made possible a requirement by the PWD Act.

Concessions

™ 72% of Heads of Integrated Schools help the children with disabilities in availing different concessions and the facilities given by the government.

This indicates the sincerity of the Heads in making the children get the concessions and it also implies the systematic work which has gone towards making them available.

This indicates the shortage of trained special educators as resource persons. Both situations being matters of concern it is necessary that all the special educator training centers beprovided with more resources to train more quailed teachers from the respective communities.

™Resource support in integrated schools over 50% considered it inadequate. Availability of Resource Teachers

303

™ Non-availability of resource teachers in 6% of the integrated schools and lack of training of the special teachers in 29.2% school.

Needs to be enhanced appropriate to the needs of the children’s individualized programme plans. When the resource rooms are better utilised the performance of the children will be better, and thereby their retention in schools assured.

Resource Rooms

™Out of the total sample, 66.3% integrated schools have no resource rooms. ™59.6% of integrated schools do not have basic minimum equipment.

The success of any integrated programme is very much dependant on the availability of well equipped resource rooms in the schools. A basic requirement which has to be met with as a matter of urgent concern. Information should be available to the Heads of schools that it is mandatory according to the PWD Act to have a well equipped resource room available. A workshop could be arranged on how to equip the resource rooms with locally available materials, how to train the teachers to innovate wherever needed, and to train the teachers to match the individualized education programme with the teaching

materials available in the resource rooms.

Dependence on Govt. Grants

™ Dependence of integrated schools on government in meeting the shortfalls in future is very high, about 70%.

A trend in government schools. With closer interactions with the community members for participation ,resources can be gathered from the community also.

Attitudes

™Behaviour of classroom teachers towards children with disabilities is good in the opinion of Heads of Integrated Schools 68.5%.

Need for providing more knowledge and skills through workshops to bring about more teachers having positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in the classrooms

™ Majority of children with disabilities, children without disabilities and parents of children with disabilities rated the attitude of teachers towards children with disabilities as good.

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However, responses of the three above categories of respondents indicate that between 26.8% to 39.2% respondents rated the teachers’ attitude as ‘average’.

This indicates that there is a communication gap between the teachers and the parents. The teachers do not explain sufficiently and clearly the teaching learning programmes given by them to te children with disabilities. The parents are also not sufficiently interested in knowing more precisely of the classroom programmes which the teachers are providing for the children with disabilities in integrated settings. There is, therefore, need to bring about a clear communication channel between the teachers and the parents.

Management Support

™ The Heads of Integrated schools, 35% rated the support of the management to the cause for integrated education as either average or poor.

The management needs orientation to the requirements in the PWD Act in its contents for effective compliance and of its implications when not abided by.

™ The position of mainstream schools in regard to admission of children with disabilities is good as nearly 79% schools give admission to all children with disabilities.

A very good trend.

™ Integrated education is beneficial to the children with disabilities in the opinion of about 85% Heads of mainstream schools.

A healthy indication for effective integration.

™ Nearly 11% of the Heads of mainstream schools state that the IEDC affects the standard of education adversely.

A marginal percentage only. In due course it will be overcome by viewing the successes of integration.

™ 93% of Heads of mainstream schools stated that they would like to opt for the IEDC schemes in their schools.

Very good indicator

PWD Act

™ 48.3% Heads of integrated schools not aware of the Section 39 of PWD Act.

305

More awareness needed through workshops on information and compliance for the integrated school

71.4% Heads of Special Schools are aware of the Act.

™32.9% Heads of mainstream schools not aware of the provision.

™ 57.6% Heads of mainstream schools aware of the IEDC scheme and also the other schemes for the benefits of the children with disabilities.

™91.3% of children without disabilities aware of children with disabilities studying in integrated schools.

™74.7% among the Panchayat/ village and community leaders, aware about the existence of integrated schools and their interaction with these schools by way of visiting them.

™ 37.3% of the community leaders are aware of the Section 39 of the PWD Act.

™ 33.3% NGOs working in the field of disability are aware of the integrated schools working in their localities have knowledge in this regard.

™ 69.8% of the educational administrators are aware of the Section 39 of the PWD Act and of the IEDC Scheme and other schemes for the children with disabilities.

That the community leaders, the NGOs and the educational administrators are aware of Section 39 of the PWD Act is encouraging. This should be emulated by the Heads of Schools There is however a need to have periodic orientation workshops on the contents of the Act and its regulations, as also well planned dissemination programmes on the implications of non compliance of the Act to all stakeholders. There is a need for greater public awareness on the benefits of the Act when properly implemented.

Multiple options

™ As regards nature of impairment, the view of the parents of children with disabilities in integrated schools is that: orthopaedically handicapped children form the largest percentage, 44.9% as studied in the sample. HI is 26.5% and VI is 15.2% followed by MR, 10.6% and MH, 2.4%.

This information is from the sample studied a parental observation and their perception of disability.

™ Three important sources in the detection of disabilities, are: family members, family doctors, and PHC personnel. Child guidance clinics also play a role.

™ There are parents who opted for multiple options in the detection of disabilities in their children expressing their reactions , most importantly that it was one of ‘shock’. They considered consulting the doctors as important.

™ The gap between identification of a disability and the schooling time of children with disabilities is 47.1%.

This gap can be effectively filled by providing early intervention programmes to the children on identification of disabilities.

™Suggestion-givers are school teachers, relatives and other family members, and PHC doctors, on the need for further action for children with disabilities.

This network needs to be strengthened to minimize the detection time and the action taken time..

™Parents’ have confidence in the ability of their children with disabilities 88% stated that children must be educated.

A positive thinking

™ Highest percentage of parents send their children to integrated schools.

A good trend. A positive impact of the IEDC Scheme

Parent teacher meetings

™Although integrated schools organize parent-teacher meetings, their effect on academic and co-curricular activities is significant for only 48.3% Heads of Integrated schools.

More emphasis needs to be placed on the orientation of parent teacher meetings being made meaningful with interactions which will benefit the children .

™While majority of integrated schools (67.4%) interact with community or community leaders for enrollment of more children with disabilities, interaction with gram panchayats in this regard is less than half (49.4%).

Gram Panchayat leaders and Heads of schools interacting fruitfully will bring in more enrolment and better environment for integration as both the groups are opinion makers.

™ Support of community leaders for integrated education is not up to the mark as 57.3% rated their support of community leaders either average or poor.

Although there is greater interaction between the Heads of Integrated Schools and the community leaders, yet support from them does not seem to be as much as it ought to be. The community leaders should be made to develop a sense of pride in being in a position to muster support for the education of the children with disabilities. Motivation and orientation programmes are needed for such a n attitude to develop in them.

IEDC Scheme

™ Effectiveness of IEDC Scheme is either average or poor in the opinion of majority of Heads of Special schools (57.2%).

They are indifferent to the Scheme because they stand to gain in getting grant in aid , by keeping the special children on their rolls.

™ Only a very small percentage of parents of children with disabilities either attend the parent-teacher meeting sometimes only (47.8%) or never attend them (24.8%).

™ One aspect of the IEDC scheme which needs attention is on the participation of parents in parent teacher meetings. For this they should be motivated sufficiently. They should be told clearly of the benefits they would accrue in due course by their children being educated an dbecoming less dependant on them.

™ Managing educational needs of children with disabilities at homes is a difficult task for majority of parents (58%).

This is understandable because of lack of structured system of training at home.

™ Attitude of the school management towards the cause of integrated education is not very encouraging.

™ Level of awareness of parents about the rehabilitation services provided by the integrated schools is not satisfactory, as only little more than 38% are aware of the services.

™ Community support to integrated education, according to parents of disabled children, is also not up to the mark due to more than 50% average and poor ratings.

™ However, community support to integrated education, according to parents of non-disabled children, is better.

™Performance of integrated schools in the view of panchayat/ community leaders is not satisfactory, as only 26.5% gave good rating in this regard.

There is scope for strengthening community support to integrated education in the

opinion of NGOs receiving grants under the IEDC scheme.

™ NGOs working in the field of disability also consider community support as a weak aspect due to considerable lack of community support to integrated education.

™ Opinion of educational administrators on community participation in encouraging integrated education indicates not so encouraging status as not more than 50% administrators rated average and poor.

™ Similar is the response in regard to the effectiveness of integrated schools in implementing the IEDC scheme.

An concerted programme is needed to create an awareness on the contents of the PWD Act on the rights of the children with disabilities and on need of the community members, Heads of Schools, the educational departments, and the parents in taking on the responsibility in making the benefits reach the children with disabilities in a deserving manner. The implications on the non compliance of the Act should also be made known to all the service providers.

Training

™ Orientation programme of mainstream teachers, although important, has not been given adequate attention, as responded by majority of Heads of integrated schools.

™ Interaction of Heads of Integrated Schools with the state implementing agencies is another neglected component, as the about 35% never interact with the agencies. There is no systematic plan for such meetings to take place.

™ Orientation training of Heads of Integrated Schools has also not received adequate attention, as only 30.3% Heads have received such training.

There should well organised periodic training programmes orienting the teachers ,Heads of Integrated Schools, and the State implementing Agencies.

Financial Assistance

™The majority of the representatives of the NGOs who are receiving grants under the IEDC Scheme considered the incentives under the Scheme ‘inadequate’.

Even though the funding is from other two programmes –Sarva Siksha Abhyan , Grant in Aid to Voluntary Organizations and the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment yet there is an expression of disatifaction-an unfound one. There should be a transparency in the funding operations and the sources of availability so that there is no undue cause for dissent.

™ Two key reasons for getting less money than under the IEDC scheme are ‘reduction by the central government’ and non-release of money by the state government.

™ Two most important problems faced by educational administrators for proper implementation of the IEDC scheme are collection of utilization certificate from the schools (18.8%) and lack of staff (15.6%).

Some important problems faced by the schools in getting financial assistance are: lack of clear policy of state government in promoting integrated education, delay in recommendation of proposal, non-availability of sensitized staff in IEDC cell and non-existence of IEDC cell in the state. Another need is that the NGOs and the school authorities need to be given a training course on preparing accounts, providing the utilization certificate as per the provisions in the budgetary requirements and also in presenting the matter on time.

Last Updated on Thursday, 19 January 2012 08:56
 
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